Intellectual Disability

hydrapany.ribbonClick here for a printed copy

What is an Intellectual Disability?

DSM-V defines intellectual disability as a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual functioning including abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, problem solving.  Adaptive functioning including limitations in activities of daily living, communication, social participation, and independent living across multiple environments such as home, school, work and community. Deficits are on the onset during the developmental period.

According the American Association on Intellectual Disabilities (AAIDD), Intellectual Functioning refers to general mental capacity such as, learning, reasoning and problem-solving.

Types

Although historically, the levels of severity was based on I.Q. scores, this has changed to adaptive functioning which determines the levels of support required.

Mild
  • Social Domain- There may be difficulties in regulating emotions and behaviors in an age-appropriate manner. There tends to be a limited understanding of calculated risk, and social judgment.
  • Practical Domain- May need assistance in independent living skills such as grocery shopping, transportation, banking and food preparation.
Moderate
  • Social Domain: Capacity for relationships is evident in ties to family and friends and may have successful friendships across life and sometimes relationships in adulthood.
  • Practical Domain: Can care for personal needs involving eating, dressing and hygiene and as an adult participate in all household task.
Severe
  • Social Doman: Spoken language is limited. Speech may be ingle words or phrases. The individual understands simple speech.
  • Practical Domain: Requires support for all activities of daily living, including meals, dressing and bathing. The person will require supervision at all times. Unable to make responsible decisions regarding self-care.
Profound
  • Social Domain: Has limited understanding of symbolic communication in speech and gestures. The person expresses his or her own desires and emotions through non-verbal communication.
  • Practical Domain: The child or adult is dependent on other people for basic needs including self-care and independent living including health and safety.
Global Developmental Delay

Children under the age of 5 are given this diagnosis when an individual fails to meet expected developmental milestones in several areas of intellectual functioning. This includes children who may be too young to participate in standardized testing.

Causes

Causes can include:

  • Complications during childbirth
  • Problems after birth
  • Chromosomal (Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome)
  • Metabolic
  • Nutritional
  • Genetic
  • Poverty and cultural factors

Prevalence

  • Approximately 1% of the world population
  • Prevalence for severe intellectual disability is 6 per 100
  • In the United States, Intellectual disability comprises of 3 percent of the general population
  • Nationally, 34% of people with intellectual disability are employed
  • Males are more likely than females to be diagnoses with both mild and severe

 

March- Organization of the Month

The Greater Richmond ARC        arc-richmond

Who are they?

The Greater Richmond ARC is a non-profit organization founded in 1954 by Richmond area families. The organization provides programs and services to children and adults with developmental disabilities across the lifespan with the mission of helping each person achieve their potential.

How they do it:

The Greater Richmond ARC provides the following developmental services:

  • Support Services
  • Day support and afterschool services
  • Employment development services
  • Prevocational services

Location:

3600 Sanders Avenue
Richmond, VA 23227
804-358-1874

March Upcoming Events

March 5, 2016

Visions of Community
Federation for Children with Special Needs
Seaport World Trade Center, Boston
For More Information: www.fcsn.org

March 11, 2016

Transporting Students with Disabilities and Preschoolers
Conference and Trade Show
Galt House Hotel
Louisville, KY
For More Information: www.stnoline.com

March 18, 2016

2016 Statewide Disabilities Conference
Asians and Pacific Islanders with Disabilities of California (ARIDC)
Westin Pasadena Hotel
For More Information: Statewide Disabilities Conference