Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults
The DSM-V defines ADHD as a persistent pattern of attention and or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning of development. Inattention symptoms include the following:
- often fails to give close attention to details
- often has difficulty sustaining attention in task or play activities
- often does not listen when spoken to directly
- Often does not follow through on instructions
- Often has difficulty organizing task and activities often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in task that requires sustained mental effort.
Hyperactive symptoms include:
- trouble paying attention
- excessive talking
- loud interaction with others
- frequent interventions
- may have a quick temper
Awareness Day: None
Awareness Month: October
ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior
70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
50% will continue into adulthood
ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
Children & Adolescents
The 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2–17 (Danielson et al. 2018):
- 6.1 million children (9.4 percent) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This includes:
- About 388,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.4 percent in this age group)
- 2.4 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 9.6 percent in this age group)
- 3.3 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 13.6 percent in this age group)
- 5.4 million children (8.4 percent) have a current diagnosis of ADHD. This includes:
- About 335,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.1 percent in this age group)
- 2.2 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 8.9 percent in this age group)
- 2.9 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 11.9 percent in this age group)
- Treatment used by children ages 2-7 with a current diagnosis of ADHD:
- Two out three were taking medication (62 percent).
- Less than half received behavioral treatment in the past year (46.7 percent).
- Nearly one out of three received a combination of medication and behavioral treatment in the past year (31.7 percent).
- Nearly one out of four had not received any treatment (23 percent).
- Severity of ADHD among children ages 2-17:
- 14.5 percent had severe ADHD
- 43.7 percent had moderate ADHD
- 41.8 percent had mild ADHD
- Co-occuring conditions (children ages 2-17):
- Two out of three children (63.8 percent) had at least one co-occuring condition.
- Half of all children (51.5 percent) had behavioral or conduct problems.
- One out of three children (32.7 percent) had anxiety problems.
- One out of six children (16.8 percent) had depression.
- About one out of seven children (13.7 percent) had autism spectrum disorder.
- About one out of 80 children (1.2 percent) had Tourette syndrome.
- One in a hundred adolescents (1 percent) had a substance abuse disorder.
- By race or ethnicity (children ages 2-17):
- 8.4 percent White
- 10.7 percent Black
- 6.6 percent Other
- 6.0 percent Hispanic/Latino
- 9.1 percent Non-Hispanic/Latino
Adults with ADHD
- 4.4 percent of the adult US population has ADHD, but less than 20 percent of these individuals seek help for it.
- 41.3% of adult ADHD cases are considered severe.
- During their lifetimes, 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women.
- About 30 to 60 percent of patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to be affected into adulthood.
- Adults with ADHD are 5 times more likely to speed
- Adults with ADHD are nearly 50 percent more likely to be in a serious car crash.
- Having ADHD makes you 3 times more likely to be dead by the age of 45
- Anxiety disorders occur in 50 percent of adults with ADHD.
The following links provide tools, resources and information for parents and special education educators on providing support to children diagnosed with ADHD.
Information on classroom accommodations including teaching techniques, learning style, schedule, environment, material, assistance and behavior management.
10 ways to support students with hyperactivity and attention needs (The Starr Spangled Planner)
Accommodations for ADHD students (ADDCoach4U)
Classroom accommodations for ADHD(Understood)
Top 20 ADHD accommodations and modifications that work (Promoting Success Blog)
Classroom Tips and Strategies
The following links are tips and strategies that are specific to teaching techniques and helpful information on behavior approaches, rewards, eliminating distractions and seating arrangements
15 strategies to help students with ADHD (Student Savvy)
30 ideas for teaching children with ADHD (Kelly Bear)
ADHD and piano lesson teaching strategies (Teach Piano Today)
ADHD Teaching Strategies for the Classroom( Promoting Success Blog)
How can teachers help students with ADHD (Education World)
Ideas and strategies for kids with ADD and learning disabilities (Child Development Institute)
Setting up the classroom (ADD in Schools)
Supporting students with ADHD (Free Spirit Publishing)
Teaching students with ADHD: Instructional strategies and practice (U.S. Department of Education)
Tips for teaching students with ADHD(ADHD Kids Rock)
Tips and information from websites on helping students concentrate in the classroom.
5 simple concentration building techniques for kids with ADHD (Empowering Parents)
5 ways to improve your child’s focus (Understood)
Ways to improve concentration in kids with ADHD (Brain Balance)
Executive functioning helps students analyze a task, planning, organization, time management and finishing a task. The following links provide articles on understand executive functioning and its relationship to ADHD.
Classroom strategies for executive functioning (Understood)
Executive functioning explained and 20 strategies for success (Minds in Bloom)
Executive function skills (CHADD)
Executive Functioning Issues (Understood)
Handwriting for kids with ADHD (Look! We’re Learning)