The study examined the prevalence, stability and characteristics pf ASD in children diagnosed with an intellectual disability.
The methodology used to assess the prevalence of ASD in children diagnoses with an intellectual disability identified 2,208 children through the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network. The data reviewed was done in threes phases including screening, extraction and case evaluation. The process included screening each child’s clinical records, and public school information. Records were abstracted that included information on diagnoses, behavior descriptors and characteristics. The records were then evaluated for both an intellectual disability and autism status.
- Rates of ASD in intellectual disabilities were substantially higher than ASD rates reported in the general U.S. population
- Rates demonstrated elevated and increasing rates of ASD within diagnosis of an intellectual disability.
- These efforts are warranted to reduce public health costs and support individual well-being for the approximately 24% of people with an intellectual disability who also meet the ASD criteria.
Tonnsen, B.L.; Boan, A.D.; Bradley, CC.; Charles, J.; Cohen, A.; Carpenter, L.A (2016). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children with Intellectual Disability. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 121 (6). 487-500
The purpose of this study is to summarize international research that has been conducted on the prevalence of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities.
The authors reviewed studies that were published from 1990 to July 2016. The studies were identified through using databases including Medline, Cinahl, PsyINFO, and Web of Science. Further information was obtained through email requests and cross-citations.
Through this method, twenty studies were identified. The study selection required that the studies were peer reviewed, and samples of people where at least 50% had an intellectual disability
- Dysphagia is common in people with an intellectual disability and my be under-recognized.
- Improved recognition and management of dysphagia may reduce the occurrence of associated health conditions and reduce hospital admissions and premature death
- Organizations that are providing services and supports to individuals with an intellectual disability need access to resources that provide comprehensive information on topics relating to dysphagia.
Robert, J.; Chadwick, D.; Baines, S.; Emerson, E.; Hatton, C. (2017). Prevalence of Dysphagia in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 55(6). 377-391
The author reviews and discusses G.I. issues found in autistic individuals including the effects of G.I. abnormalities on behavior issues as well as medical issues.
- Historically, 7 out of the 11 children that Leo Kanner described in his study included children having eating/feeding problems.
- The most common problems include chronic constipation, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
- Gastroesophageal reflux, bloody stools, vomiting and gaseousness are also elevated in some individuals diagnosed with autism.
- Continued research is needed in this area to better understand the correlation.
Hsiao, E. (2014). Gastrointestinal Issues in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 22(2) 104-111
The purpose of this study is to det4rmine the clinical effectiveness of stregnth training in children diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy.
Participants included children with cerebral palsy between the ages of 6 to 12 years old. All of the participants were patients at a children’s rehabilitation center. Six of the children were diagnosed with spastic diplegia and were limited in walking and also demonstrated less than 50% of normal muscle strength. The remining participants (5) had spastic hemiplegia and demonstrated 20% strength in at least two muscles across extremities.
The participants participated in a 6-week strength training program including pre and post strength training evaluation on eight muscles groups in both lower extremities using a hand-held dynamometer, 3D gait analysis.
The researcher found:
- That each group identified had a significant strength gains in the muscles targeted.
- The entire group had higher gait velocity
- Asymmetry in strength improved in hemiplegia
- Short-term strength training programs demonstrated positive- functional outcomes.
Damiano, D.L,; Abel, M.F. (1998). Functional Outcomes of Strength Training in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 79. 119-25
Studies show that approximately 30% of congenital heart disease is related to genetic syndromes. awareness of these genetic syndromes can help in the planning of the individual’s care management.
The following are common genetic syndromes associated with congenital heart disease:
Down Syndrome. Studies show that congenital heart disease occurs in 40-50% of individuals with Down syndrome specifically atrioventricular canal defects. It is suggested that echocardiograms should be performed at diagnosis.
Turner Syndrome. Heart issues are common in 24-45% of girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome. The most common abnormalities are bicuspid aortic valve (16%). The researcher suggests that all Turner patients should have a baseline cardiologic exam.
22q11.2 deletion Syndrome. In most cases, congenital heart defects is the cause of death. It is recommended that both an EKG and and EEG be done at the time of the diagnosis with ongoing follow-up.
Williams Syndrome. Approximately 75-80% of individuals born with Williams syndrome have a cardiac malformation. Hypertension is often developed in about 50% of people with Williams syndrome and continues to increase overtime.
Ko, JM (2015). Genetic Syndromes Associated with Congenital Heart Disease. The Korean Society of Cardiology. 45 (5) 357-361