Classroom Structuring Methods and Strategies for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Introduction

This articles provides a review of visually based strategies for organizing classrooms for children and youth with ASD using a review of the literature.

Findings

  • Environmental and visual structuring methods for use with individuals with ASD have been shown to have research support.
  • These methods have also been recommended by high functioning adults with ASD.
  • The methods have the potential for increasing independent functioning among students with ASD and decreasing the effects of challenges associated with ASD.

Reference

Ganz, J. (2007). Classroom Structuring Methods and Strategies for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exceptionality. 15(4). 249-260.

Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample

Introduction

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of Tourettte Syndrome and co-occurring conditions on school methods.

Methodology

Data was taken from information reported by parents from the Natioanal Survey of Children’s Health. Children with Tourette Syndrome were compared with those who never had Tourette Syndrome on school  measures

Findings

  • Tourette Syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs.
  • Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both Tourette Syndrome and co-occurring conditions would help to support the child’s education.

Reference

Claussen, A.H.; Bitsko, R.H.; Holbrook, J.R.; Bloomfield, J.; Giordano, K.; (2018). Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 39(9) 335-342.

Repeat Emergency Department Visits for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Psychiatric Disorders

Introduction

This study examined the likelihood of this group returning to the ER within 30 days of discharge.

Findings

  • This population based in Ontario. Canada showed that individuals with both an IDD and psychiatric disorder had an increased risk of repeat ER visits compared to individuals with psychiatric disorders only.
  • For this combined disorder group, there was a trend of ER  visits more commonly resulting in admission
  • Residing in low socioeconomic neighborhoods and in rural areas, greater morbidity, and lower continuity of primary care over the previous 2 years were consistently associated with increased risk of repeat ER visits.

Reference

Durbin, A.; Balogh, R.; Lin, E.; Wilton, A.S.; Selick, A.; Dobranowski, K.M. Lunsky, Y. (2019). Repeat Emergency Department Visits for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Psychiatric Disorders. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 124 (3) 206-219.

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children with Intellectual Disability

Introduction

The study examined the prevalence, stability and characteristics pf ASD in children diagnosed with an intellectual disability.

Methodology

The methodology used to assess the prevalence of ASD in children diagnoses with an intellectual disability identified 2,208 children through the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network. The data reviewed was done in threes phases including screening, extraction and case evaluation. The process included screening each child’s clinical  records, and public school information. Records were abstracted that included information on diagnoses, behavior descriptors and characteristics. The records were then evaluated for both an intellectual disability and autism status.

Findings

  • Rates of ASD in intellectual disabilities were substantially higher than ASD rates reported in the general U.S. population
  • Rates demonstrated elevated and increasing rates of ASD within diagnosis of an intellectual disability.
  • These efforts are warranted to reduce public health costs and support individual well-being for the approximately 24% of people with an intellectual disability who also meet the ASD criteria.

Reference

Tonnsen, B.L.; Boan, A.D.; Bradley, CC.; Charles, J.; Cohen, A.; Carpenter, L.A (2016). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children with Intellectual Disability. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 121 (6). 487-500

Prevalence of Dysphagia in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

Introduction

The purpose of this study is to summarize international research that has been conducted on the prevalence of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities.

Methodology

The authors reviewed studies that were published from 1990 to July 2016. The studies were identified through using databases including Medline, Cinahl, PsyINFO, and Web of Science. Further information was obtained through email requests and cross-citations.

Through this method, twenty studies were identified. The study selection required that the studies were peer reviewed, and samples of people where at least 50% had an intellectual disability

Findings

  • Dysphagia is common in people with an intellectual disability and my be under-recognized.
  • Improved recognition and management of dysphagia may reduce the occurrence of associated health conditions and reduce hospital admissions and premature death
  • Organizations that are providing services and supports to individuals with an intellectual disability need access to resources that provide comprehensive information on topics relating to dysphagia.

 

Reference

Robert, J.; Chadwick, D.; Baines, S.; Emerson, E.; Hatton, C. (2017). Prevalence of Dysphagia in People with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 55(6). 377-391