Classroom Structuring Methods and Strategies for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Introduction

This articles provides a review of visually based strategies for organizing classrooms for children and youth with ASD using a review of the literature.

Findings

  • Environmental and visual structuring methods for use with individuals with ASD have been shown to have research support.
  • These methods have also been recommended by high functioning adults with ASD.
  • The methods have the potential for increasing independent functioning among students with ASD and decreasing the effects of challenges associated with ASD.

Reference

Ganz, J. (2007). Classroom Structuring Methods and Strategies for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exceptionality. 15(4). 249-260.

Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample

Introduction

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of Tourettte Syndrome and co-occurring conditions on school methods.

Methodology

Data was taken from information reported by parents from the Natioanal Survey of Children’s Health. Children with Tourette Syndrome were compared with those who never had Tourette Syndrome on school  measures

Findings

  • Tourette Syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs.
  • Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both Tourette Syndrome and co-occurring conditions would help to support the child’s education.

Reference

Claussen, A.H.; Bitsko, R.H.; Holbrook, J.R.; Bloomfield, J.; Giordano, K.; (2018). Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 39(9) 335-342.

Is ADHD linked to substance abuse? There’s strong connection between them, study finds

Published by: The Herald Sun
Written by: Karina Muzhukhina

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be linked to substance abuse, a new study found.

The study, set to be published in the journal Alcohol and Alcoholism, found that even when accounting for age, race, income, education, childhood adversities and mental illnesses aside from ADHD, people aged 20 to 39 and diagnosed with ADHD were 69% more likely to have a substance use disorder than those without ADHD.

Around half of people with ADHD will have a substance abuse disorder, the study found, compared to only about 23.6% of adults without ADHD.

Researchers collected data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and analyzed findings from 270 people between the ages of 20 to 39 with ADHD and 6,602 people without the disorder.

About 36% of adults with ADHD reported abusing alcohol, followed by cannabis — with about 23% of adults with ADHD abusing the substance. Those with ADHD “were also three times more likely to experience an illicit drug disorder” — not counting marijuana — compared to those without the disorder. Click here to read the rest of the story.

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children with Intellectual Disability

Introduction

The study examined the prevalence, stability and characteristics pf ASD in children diagnosed with an intellectual disability.

Methodology

The methodology used to assess the prevalence of ASD in children diagnoses with an intellectual disability identified 2,208 children through the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network. The data reviewed was done in threes phases including screening, extraction and case evaluation. The process included screening each child’s clinical  records, and public school information. Records were abstracted that included information on diagnoses, behavior descriptors and characteristics. The records were then evaluated for both an intellectual disability and autism status.

Findings

  • Rates of ASD in intellectual disabilities were substantially higher than ASD rates reported in the general U.S. population
  • Rates demonstrated elevated and increasing rates of ASD within diagnosis of an intellectual disability.
  • These efforts are warranted to reduce public health costs and support individual well-being for the approximately 24% of people with an intellectual disability who also meet the ASD criteria.

Reference

Tonnsen, B.L.; Boan, A.D.; Bradley, CC.; Charles, J.; Cohen, A.; Carpenter, L.A (2016). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children with Intellectual Disability. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 121 (6). 487-500

Functional Outcomes of Strength Training in Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Introduction

The purpose of this study is to det4rmine the clinical effectiveness of stregnth training in children diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy.

Methodology

Participants included children with cerebral palsy between the ages of 6 to 12 years old. All of the participants were patients at a children’s rehabilitation center. Six of the children  were diagnosed with spastic diplegia and were limited in walking and also demonstrated less than 50% of normal muscle strength. The remining participants (5)  had spastic hemiplegia and demonstrated 20% strength in at least two muscles across extremities.

The participants participated in a 6-week strength training program including pre and post strength training evaluation on eight muscles groups in both lower extremities using a hand-held  dynamometer, 3D gait analysis.

Findings

The researcher found:

  • That each group identified had a significant strength gains in the muscles targeted.
  • The entire group had higher gait velocity
  • Asymmetry in strength improved in hemiplegia
  • Short-term strength training programs demonstrated positive- functional outcomes.
Reference

Damiano, D.L,; Abel, M.F. (1998). Functional Outcomes of Strength Training in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 79. 119-25