Published by: Healio Optometry
Written by: Mitch Ibach
Keratoconus, like many ocular diseases, has genetic, systemic and environmental associations that affect prevalence.
One of the systemic conditions where keratoconus incidence is much higher is in the Down syndrome (DS) population.
DS is a genetic condition where the affected individual gets three (full or partial) copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). According to the National Down Syndrome Society, one in 700 babies in the U.S. is born with DS, making it the most common chromosomal disorder.
As keratoconus (KCN) awareness continues to rise, disease prevalence studies are variable, but the trend continues to show higher incidence than previously thought.
Certain regions show higher patient numbers, but using a recent systematic global review, the authors concluded about one in 750 patients develop KCN (Hashemi et al.). In patients with DS, KCN prevalence has a larger range depending on inclusion criteria to define it, but a recent literature review showed a condensed range of 8% to 36% (Kristianslund et al.). This aligns with reported incidence of KCN being 10 times to 20 times higher in a patient with DS compared to the general population (National Keratoconus Foundation). Click here for the rest of the story.
Cerebral palsy affects people differently including; learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, behavioral challenges, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Executive Function Disorder. People with cerebral palsy often have medical issues as well including, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, swallowing difficulties, vision problems, aspiration and constipation.
a seizure is a sudden, out of control event that can cause involuntary movement.
It occurs when there are bursts of abnormal electrical activity in the brain which interferes with normal brain functioning.
The brain constantly sends unusual electrical messages very close together.
Inform the participants that seizures are the most common of associated problems.
Experts believe that seizures are the result of scarred tissue in the brain.
About 50% of people with cerebral palsy suffer from seizures.
Epilepsy is more common in the child with spastic quadriplegic
Complex partial seizures are the most common in people with cerebral palsy
in most cases, it is unknown the cause of seizures.
Cases which the cause is known include
Serious brain injury
Lack of oxygen
Bleeding in the brain
Infection in the brain including meningitis and encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain
Co-occurring conditions that involve an intellectual or developmental disabilities
Try to keep calm and make sure the person having the seizure is comfortable and safe from harm.
A seizure can last from a second or several minutes
Do not hold the person down or try to stop his or her movements.
Do not put anything in the person’s mouth. This can injure teeth or the jaw. A person having a seizure cannot swallow his or her tongue.
Do not try to give mouth-to-mouth breaths (CPR). People usually start breathing again on their own after a seizure.
Do not offer the person water or food until he or she is fully alert.
After the seizure:
After the seizure ends, the person will probably be groggy and tired. He or she also may have a headache and be confused or embarrassed. Try to help the person find a place to rest.
The term blindness refers to complete impairment of vision
Visual impairment refers to diminished vison or low vision but not total blindness.
A person’s right side may include problems with muscles that control the right eye making it difficult for the affected eye to move from side to side.
People may appear to be crossed eyes.
Explain that people with cerebral palsy may have a condition called strabismus, where eyes do not line up and focus properly because of differences between the left and right eye muscles
May only impact one eye which happens to those whose cerebral palsy affect one side of the body.
People with cerebral palsy may have a short attention span, motor difficulties, perceptual difficulties and language difficulties
This can impact literacy, numeracy and other important skills.
Learning disabilities may also affect fine and gross motor coordination
They may tire easily since they have to put more effort into concentrating on their movements and sequence of actions.
A disorder of the executive function of the brain that allows a person to focus and organize
It is a developmental disability that occurs in approximately 3 to 5% of children
19% of children with cerebral palsy will be diagnosed with ADHD
Enlargement of the fluid filled spaces in and around the brain known as ventricles
To correct the damaging effects, the fluid build-up is performed involving a shunt
Children and adults with cerebral palsy may be more prone to having problems controlling their impulses as well as having difficulty with focus and attention
Birth injuries can cause partial or complete loss of vision and or hearing in many individuals
Possible result of physical damage to the ear due to inflammation of built-up
Senorineural hearing loss- nerves that transmit sound information from the outside world to the brain are damaged
Gastrostomy is used with children with significant eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties to ensure they received enough food and drink.
It is surgically placed through the abdominal wall to feed formula, liquids and medication directly to the stomach.
Approximately 2/3 of people with cerebral palsy have an intellectual disability
1/3 have Mild
1/3- Normal IQ
Children with spastic quadriplegia are more likely to have an intellectual disability