Down Syndrome Timeline

According to the CDC, Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder. Each year 6,000 babies are born with Down syndrome which is estimated to be about 1 in every 700 babies. Here is a timeline showing Down syndrome progression over the years:

Down Syndrome Timeline

1866- British Physician John Langdon Down, first described the genetic disorder as “Mongoloid” based on patients similar characteristics.

1876- An initial association between premature “senility” and Down syndrome is discovered.

1929- Life expectancy is approximately 9 years of age

1932- Abnormal distribution of chromosomes was first suggested as the cause of Down syndrome.

1946- Life expectancy is approximately 12 years of age.

1948- Evidence between Alzheimer’s and Down syndrome is first published.

1959- Dr. Jerome Lejeune discovered Down syndrome is the result of an abnormality in the chromosomes.

1959- The term Trisomy 21 is used on the medical community to describe Down syndrome.

1960- Researchers discover a type of trisomy called translocation

1961- Researchers discover a type pf trisomy called Mosaicism. 

1965- The World Health Organization (WHO) accepts the name Down syndrome as the standard name to use.

1970- Life expectancy is approximately 25 years of age.

1976- Amniocentesis comes into common use in the United States

1987- A gene associated with Alzheimer disease is discovered on Chromosome 21

1994- CDC announces he prevalence of Down syndrome from 1893-1990 was 1 in 1087.

1997- Life expectancy is approximately 49 years of age.

2006- Life expectancy is approximately 60 years of age

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Global Down Syndrome Foundation

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Autism Timeline: A History of Autism

In the 110 years since Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuer coined the term autism, much has changed over the years. The journey of understanding autism continues to grow and while the autism has changed over the years, there are still many more things to discover. Hopefully we are moving from awareness to getting to a place of simply accepting people who bring special gifts to the world.

1908- Swiss psychiatrist, Eugene Bleuer is the first to use the autism to describe individuals with schizophrenia who lost contact with reality.

1912- Dr. Bleuler publishes “Das Autistische Denken” in a journal of psychiatry and presents his thoughts on how a person with autism experiences the world.

1938- Dr. Hans Asperger presents a lecturer on child psychology. He adapts Bleuler’s term “autism” and uses the term “autistic psychopathy” to describe children showing social withdrawal and overly intense preoccupations.

1938- Beamon Triplett writes a thirty-three page account of his 4 year- old Donald’s unusual behavior and sends it to Leo Kanner.

1943- Dr. Leo Kanner describes a childhood disorder involving social and language impairments and the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviors. The account of 11 children leading to a distinct syndrome.

1944- Dr. Hans Asperger reports on 4 children with a pattern of behavior he terms autistic psychopathy- behaviors include reduce empathy, difficulties with forming friendships, impairments in the ability to maintain reciprocal conversations.

1952- The first edition of DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) is published.

1959- LSD is used as treatment for autistic schizophrenic children.

1962- The National Autistic Society was created- The first autism organization.

1965- National Society for Autistic Children was founded.

1966- South African psychologist, Victor Lotter publishes the first prevalence study on autism in England.

1966- 4.5 in 10,000 are diagnosed with autism in the United States.

1966- Childhood autism rating scale introduced.

1967- Bruno Bettlheim publishes infantile autism and the Birth of Self becomes bestseller; blames mothers for autism.

1969- Dr. Kanner exonerates parents of responsibility for their children.

1970- Lorna Wing uses the term autistic spectrum to describe a concept of complexity rather than a straight line from severe to mild.

1972- Dr. Eric Schopler founds Division TEACCH  at the University of North Carolina.

1977- National Society for Autistic Children added sensory processing as one of the definitions.

1979- Autism spectrum first used by Lorna Wing and Judith Gould

1980- The prevalence is estimated 4 in 10,000

1980- Autism added to DSM-III

1980- Autism is listed as a mental disorder for the first time in the DSM.

1986- Temple Gradin publishes Emergence: Labeled Autism

1988- The movie Rainman popularized and awareness of the disorder increases among the general public.

1991- Sally Ozonoff suggested executive functioning impairs individuals with autism.

1994- The American Psychiatric Association adds Asperger’s disorder to DSM.

1996- Australian sociologist, Judy Singer coins the term Neurodiversity

1998- Andrew Wakefield reports an association between autism and MMR and bowel disease.

2000- 1 in 50 children according to the CDC are diagnosed with autism

2006- Autistic Self-Advocacy Network founded. A non profit organization run by and for autistic people.

2009- 1 in 110, children according to the CDC are diagnosed with autism

2012- 1 in 88 children are diagnosed with autism.

2013- Asperger’s disorder is dropped from the DSM-5

2014-1 in 68 children in the U.S. have autism.

 

Cerebral Palsy History Timeline

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. About I in 323 children are diagnosed each year. Although more than likely, cerebral palsy has been around for years, it was not until the 19th century that cerebral palsy was given a name. Here are some key events in cerebral palsy history.

cptimeline

1810- Dr. William John Little is credited with first identifying spastic diplegia is born.

1836- Louis Stromeyer corrects John Little’s club foot. This discovery begins a career in understanding and treating childhood impairments.

1843- Dr. William John Little begins lecturing on spastic ridgity.

1853. Dr. William John Little publishes On the Nature and Treatment of the Deformities of the Human Frame.

1861- Dr. William John Little establishes the classic definition of spastic cerebral palsy.

1889- William Osler, one of the founding professors of John Hopkins Hospital, wrote the book, Cerebral Palsies of Children

1937- Herbert A. Everest and Harry Jennings Sr., built a lightweight collapsible wheelchair.

1937- The Children’s Rehabilitation Insitute is founded by Dr. Winthrope Phelps specializing in children with cerebral palsy.

1897- Dr. Freud states cerebral palsy may be caused by fetal development

1946- Cerebral Palsy of New York State founded by parents of children with cerebral palsy.

1948- United Cerebral Palsy is incorporated.

1949- United Cerebral Palsy founded by Leonard Goldenson, his wife Isabel, Nina Eaton and Jack and Ethel Hausman.

2002-  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts first U.S. multi-state study on the prevalence.

August Special Needs Article Links

specialneedslinks

Welcome to the August links. These are articles that I tweeted and or received from viewers during the month of August on special needs and developmental disability topics. Enjoy!

5 ways to help your child with autism be more spontaneous (The Suburban)

9 things people with autism want bullies to know (Autism Speaks)

Avonte settlement won’t heal the pain (Queens Gazette)

Care for Children with epilepsy should be aware of accompany disorders (Epilepsy Research UK)

Children with autism may benefit from weighted backpacks at school (Consumer Affairs)

Finally ADHD is recognized as a disability (West)

Florida Tech program to teach police about autism (WFTV9)

Helping students with autism make the back-to-school transition (Autism Speaks)

How to tell a skeptical souse your child has a sensory processing disorder (Integrated Learning Strategies)

Resources for creating sensory-diets (Growing Hands on Kids)

This non-speaking teenager wrote an incredibly profound letter explaining autism (The Sydney Morning Herald)

Tips for flying with children with autism (Autism Cruises)

Understanding the history and pervasive myths around autism (Mind/Shift)

What are the signs of sensory processing disorder? (The Sensory Spectrum)

Why we are proud to have autism (Independent)

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Resources

22qheader

22q.11.2 deletion syndrome, is a rare disorder that is caused by a deletion in chromosome 22 located specifically in the middle of the chromosome in the area referred to as q.11.2. This syndromes affects 1 out of 4000 people and signs and symptoms include, developmental delays, poor muscle tone, learning development, feeding issues and hearing loss.

Similar Names

  • Cayer Cardiofacial Syndrome
  • Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome(CTAF)
  • DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS)
  • Microdeletion 22q11.2
  • Monosomy 22q.11
  • Opitz G/BBB Syndrome
  • Sedlackova Syndrome
  • Shprintzen Syndrome
  • Takao Syndrome
  • Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS)

History

  • 1955- First appear in medical literature by Dr. Eva Sedlackova who described a number of cases of children with hypernasal speech and reduced facial animations.
  • 1965- Dr. Angelo DiGeorge described congenital absence of the thymus gland in 4 patients.
  • 1968- Dr William Strong reported an association of cardiac abnormalities.
  • 1981- Dr. Shimizu of Japan noticed similarities between patients diagnosed with CTAF and DiGeorge Syndrome
  • 1982- Dr’s Richard Kelley, Elaine Zacker and Beverly Emanuel at the Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia discovered that some patients had a rearrangement of chromosome 22 thus causing a piece of the long arm (q11.2) to be missing

Associated Conditions

  • cardiac anomalies
  • cleft palate
  • kidney abnormalities
  • language delays
  • learning challenges
  • developmental delays
  • feeding disorders
  • autism
  • adhd

Educational Issues

Areas of Strength
  • Math Calculations
  • Rote Memory
  • Long-Term Memory
  • Computer Skills
  • Hands on Learning
Learning Challenges
  • Poor Working and short term memory
  • Difficulty with math reasoning
  • Difficulty with reading comprehension
  • Fine motor and perceptional skills
Factors Leading to Learning
  • Motivation and attention

  • Intensity

  • Cross training

  • Adapting

Here is a list of resources that provide information on 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome:

Medical Sites

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital
Genetics Home Reference
Mayo Clinic (DiGeorge Syndrome)
Medscape (DiGeorge Syndrome)
Medscape (VCFS)
Seattle Children’s Hospital
National Organization for Rare Diseases

Organizations

The International 22q.11.2 Foundation
Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome Educational Foundation
Dempster Family Foundation