Spinal Cord Injuries-Data and Statistics

Facts and Statistics
  • Each year, around the world, between 250,000 and 500,000 people suffer from a spinal cord injury.
  • The majority of spinal cord injuries are due to preventable causes such as road traffic crashes, falls or violence.
  • Spinal cord injury is associated with lower rates of school enrollment and economic participation.

Spinal Cord Injuries Are Most Commonly caused by:

 

Age of Injury

The average age of injury has increased from 20 years during the 1970’s to currently 42 years of age.

Gender

Males account for approximately 80% of new spinal cord injury cases.

Life Expectancies

Life expectancies for persons with SCI continue to increase, but are still somewhat below life expectancies.

 

References

Foundation for Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Care and Cure

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center

Spinal Cord Injury News Blog

World Health Organization

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Data and Statistics- Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

  • Fetal alcohol disorders range from mild intellectual and behavioral problems to extreme disorders that lead to profound disabilities or premature death.
  • FAS are not heredity: they are 100 percent preventable the sole cause is prenatal alcohol exposure.
  • Of the children heavily exposed to alcohol before birth, about 40 percent are estimated to exhibit fetal alcohol disorders, with 4 percent affected by full blown fetal alcohol syndrome.
  • Women who give birth to a child with FAS are 800 times more likely to give birth to subsequent children with the syndrome than are women who have never given birth to a child with the syndrome.
  • Each year, there are four times as many infants born with fetal alcohol disorders as there are infants born with muscular dystrophy, spina bifida and Down syndrome combined.
  • 15 out of 100 women of childbearing age do not know that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is dangerous.
  • FASD affects about 40,000 newborns each year
  • A survey of pediatrician reported in the journal Pediatrics revealed that only 13 percent routinely discussed the risk of drinking during pregnancy with their adolescent patients.

  • According to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1 in 9 pregnant women binge drink during the first trimester.
  • FASD are 100% incurable
  • 60% of individuals with FASD find themselves in legal trouble at some point in their lives.
  • There is a high prevalence of epilepsy (5.9%) in individuals with FASD compared with individuals who did not have the disorder.
  • 94% of individuals heavily exposed to alcohol in the womb are diagnosed with ADHD
  • It is estimated a lifetime cost for one individual with FASD is 2 million
  • 50% of adults with FASD were clinically depressed

SEPTEMBER IS FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER AWARENESS MONTH

Developmental Disability Facts and Statistics

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments before the age of 22. A developmental disability can occur before, during or after birth. Common well-known developmental disabilities include autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and Fragile X syndrome. Here are some facts and statistics on developmental disabilities.

Click here to download PDF Format

  • Developmental Disability is a severe, long-term disability that affect cognitive ability, physical functioning or both.
  • 1 in 6 or about 15% of children aged 3 through 17 have one or more developmental disabilities.
  • Between 2014 and 2016 the prevalence of developmental disability among kids ages 3 to 17 increased from 5.76 percent to 6.99 percent.
  • Prevalence of autism increased 289.5%
  • Prevalence of ADHD increased 33.0 %
  • Males have a higher prevalence of ADHD, autism, learning disabilities, stuttering and other developmental disabilities.
  • Children from families with incomes below the federal poverty level had a higher prevalence of developmental disabilities.
  • 10% of Americans have a family member with an intellectual disability.
  • Intellectual disabilities are 25 times more common than blindness.
  • Every year 125,000 children are born with an intellectual disability
  • Approximately 85% of the intellectual disability is in the mild category.
  • About 10% of the intellectual disability is considered moderate
  • About 3-4% of the intellectual disability population is severe.
  • Only 1-2% is classified as profound.

 

Resources

National Institute of Health

10 Important Facts On Trisomy 18

Today is National Trisomy Awareness Day. Below are 10 important facts on Trisomy 18.

  • It is also known as Edwards Syndrome
  • It is a condition caused by an error in cell division
  • An extra chromosome in 18 develops
  • Occurs in 1 out of every 2500 pregnancies in the United States
  • It is 1 in 6000 live births
  • Only 50% of babies who are carried to term will be born alive
  • Children are often born with heart defects
  • Features include a small head, small jaw, clenched fists and severe intellectual disabilities
  • It is named after John Hilton Edwards, who first described the syndrome in 1960
  • It affects different organ systems

 

25 Developmental Disability Links and Resources You Should Know About

March is Developmental Disabilities Awareness month! Although I blogged  the definition of developmental disabilities here, I wanted to give you more information besides the Federal regulation. Quite often, people are confused between the definition of an intellectual disability and a developmental disability.

A developmental disability is described as an assortment of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments or both. For example, you may have a child or an adult with an intellectual disability or perhaps a person diagnosed with cerebral palsy and an intellectual disability. It is also considered a severe and chronic disability that can occur up to the age of 22, hence the word developmental. A developmental disability can occur before birth such as genetic disorders (i.e. cri du chat, fragile x syndrome,) or chromosomes ( i.e. Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome); during birth (lack of oxygen) or after birth up to the age of 22 (i.e. head injuries, child abuse or accidents).

The disability is likely to occur indefinitely meaning the person will require some type of ongoing service throughout their lives. Finally, the person must show limitations in 3 or more of the following areas of major life activities:

  1. Self-care– brushing teeth, hand-washing and combing hair independently
  2. Receptive and expressive language-ability to understand someone talking and to also be understood
  3. Learning– ability to read and write with understanding
  4. Mobility-ability to move around without any assistance
  5. Self-direction– time management, organization
  6. Capacity for independent living– requiring no supervision
  7. Economic self-sufficiency – having a job  and purchasing what one needs

The following are links to articles on various types of developmental disabilities including resources with facts and statistics, organizations, and sign and symptoms.

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

27 things to know about Fragile X Syndrome

ADHD- facts and statistics

Angelman Syndrome

Angelman syndrome resources

Cri Du Chat Resources

Developmental disability acronyms you should know 

Developmental disability awareness ribbons

Down syndrome-facts and statistics

Down syndrome timeline

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Early Intervention- Resources and Information

Edward Syndrome Resources

Global developmental delays

Intellectual Disability Resources

Over 30 online resources on Rett syndrome

Pervasive DD-NOS

Prader Willi Syndrome Resources

Resources for teaching students with Down syndrome

Ring Chromosome 22 Resources

Teaching self-regulation and autism spectrum disorder

Things to know about Angelman Syndrome

Turner Syndrome Characteristics

What is Prader Willi Syndrome?

William-Beuren Syndrome Resources

Spina Bifida- Facts and Statistics

Click here to download PDF version

October is Spina Bifida Awareness Month. Spina Bifida is a birth defect that affects the spine and the spinal cord. The membranes surrounding the spinal cord do not close properly.

Facts and Statistics
  • Each year, about 1,500 babies are born with spina bifida.
  • There is no known cause
  • Accumulation of fluid in the brain affects 70% of children.
  • 40% of shunts fail or become in affected and need to be changed within a year.
  • It can happen anywhere along the spine if the neural tube does not close all the way.
  • Spina Bifida might cause physical and intellectual disabilities that range from mild to severe depending on the size and location of the opening in the spine.
  • Myelomeningocele is the most serious type of spina bifida.
  • Spina Bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy or after the baby is born.
  • Some people with Spina Bifida may never experience symptoms
  • Spina Bifida occurs between the 3rd and 4th week of pregnancy.
  • Children with Spina Bifida may have difficulty with math, reading comprehension and learning.
  • Common challenges to learning include, fine and gross motor skills, spatial orientation, communication difficulties and attention and memory.
  • Some children with Spina Bifida also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Hispanic women have the highest rate of having a child affected by spina bifida, when compared with non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Data from 12 state-based birth defects tracking programs from 1997-2007 were used to estimate the total number of pregnancies affected by spina bifida compared to the total number of live births (also called the prevalence of spina bifida) for each racial/ethnic group:
    • Hispanic: 3.80 per 10,000 live births
    • Non-Hispanic black or African-American: 2.73 per 10,000 live births
    • Non-Hispanic white: 3.09 per 10,000 live births
Resources

March of Dimes
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
askus@marchofdimes.com
http://www.marchofdimes.com
Tel: 914-997-4488; 888-MODIMES (663-4637)
Fax: 914-428-8203

Spina Bifida Association
4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW
Suite 250
Washington, DC 20007-4266
sbaa@sbaa.org
http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org
Tel: 202-944-3285; 800-621-3141
Fax: 202-944-3295

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia 

Resources For Teaching Students with Down Syndrome

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) is a chromosomal disorder due to 3 copies of chromosome 21, causing a number of developmental delays, medical and physical disabilities. Learning is one of the areas that is affected by the disorder. Children born with Down syndrome typically have delays in the area of gross and fine motor skills, thinking, short attention span, speech and language difficulties and sequencing. The following links and resources include information on tips and strategies for teaching children with Down syndrome for both parents and teachers.

5 tips for including students with Down syndrome in a general education classroom

10 things teachers should know about Down syndrome

Classroom strategies for Down syndrome students

Five instructional strategies for children with Down syndrome

Modifications for students with Down syndrome

Modifying your curriculum for individuals with Down syndrome

Quick tips for teaching students with Down syndrome in general education classes

Strategies for learning and teaching

Supporting the student with Down syndrome in your classroom

Teaching children with Down syndrome- 10 tips from a former teacher

Teaching children with Down syndrome to read

Teaching students with Down syndrome

Teaching tips: Special education children with Down syndrome

Tips for teaching students with Down syndrome

What students with Down syndrome want teachers to know

 

October is Down Syndrome Awareness Month

Dyslexia- Facts and Statistics

Click here to download PDF version
Dyslexia is a learning disorder which makes it difficult for children and adults to read and learn new words.
Facts and Statistics
  • It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia
  • Over 40 million American Adults are dyslexic – and only 2 million know it
  • Dyslexia is not tied to IQ – Einstein was dyslexic and had an estimated IQ of 160
  • Dyslexia in not just about getting letters or numbers mixed up or out of order
  • 80% of people associate dyslexia with some form of retardation – this is not true
  • Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability or disorder that includes poor word reading, word decoding, oral reading fluency and spelling
  • Dyslexia occurs in people of all backgrounds and intellectual levels
  • Dyslexia has nothing to do with not working hard enough
  • 20% of school-aged children in the US are dyslexic
  • With appropriate teaching methods, dyslexia can learn successfully
  • Over 50% of NASA employees are dyslexic
  • Dyslexia runs in families; parents with dyslexia are very likely to have children with dyslexia
  • Dyslexics may struggle with organizational skills, planning and prioritizing, keeping time, concentrating with background noise.

Prevalence

About 15-20 percent of the U.S. population has a learning disability.

  • 70-80% of people with poor reading skills, are likely dyslexic.
  • One in five students, or 15-20% of the population, has a language based learning disability. Dyslexia is the most common of the language based learning disabilities.
  • Nearly the same percentage of males and females have dyslexia.
  • Nearly the same percentage of people from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds have dyslexia.
  • Percentages of children at risk for reading failure are much higher in high poverty, language-minority populations who attend ineffective schools.
  • In minority and high poverty schools, 70-80% of children have inadequate reading skills.
  • According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 38% of all fourth grade students are “below basic” reading skills. They are at or below the 40th percentile for their age group.
  • Nationwide 20% of the elementary school population is struggling with reading.
  • National Center for Education statistics, 5% of all adults are “non-literate”.
  • 20-25% of all adults can only read at the lowest level.
  • 62% of non readers dropped out of high school.
  • 80% of children with an IEP have reading difficulty and 85% of those are Dyslexic.
  • 30% of children with Dyslexia also have at least a mild form of AD/HD.

 

Reference

Austin Learning Solutions

Dyslexia Center of Utah

Encyclopedia of Children’s Health 

 

October is Dyslexia Awareness Month

Free Visual Motor Skills Teaching Strategies and Worksheets

Visual processing disorder affects the way a person sees or the ability to draw or copy. The child or the student may have difficulty with cutting, copying information accurately or may struggle to cut or paste. This is due to lack of visual motor integration between the eyes and the hands.

The following resources include information on strategies in improving motor skills and free activities and worksheets.

10 strategies for visual-motor integration problems

Activities for improving visual-motor skills in kids

Teaching students with visual impairments

Visual motor integration activities

Visual motor skill activities that kids will love

Visual Motor Free Activities

Find the animals

Follow that maze

Patterns, Patterns, Patterns

Puppy Maze

Raking Maze

Trace the Squares

Visual discrimination puzzles

Visual Perceptual Worksheets

ADHD- Facts and Statistics

Click here to download PDF version
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults
Facts and Statistics
  • ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
  • It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
  • It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
  • People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior
  • 70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
  • 50% will continue into adulthood
  • ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
  • ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
  • Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
Prevalence

UNITED STATES

Children & Adolescents

The 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2–17 (Danielson et al. 2018):

  • 6.1 million children (9.4 percent) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This includes:
    • About 388,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.4 percent in this age group)
    • 2.4 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 9.6 percent in this age group)
    • 3.3 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 13.6 percent in this age group)
  • 5.4 million children (8.4 percent) have a current diagnosis of ADHD. This includes:
    • About 335,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.1 percent in this age group)
    • 2.2 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 8.9 percent in this age group)
    • 2.9 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 11.9 percent in this age group)
  • Treatment used by children ages 2-7 with a current diagnosis of ADHD:
    • Two out three were taking medication (62 percent).
    • Less than half received behavioral treatment in the past year (46.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of three received a combination of medication and behavioral treatment in the past year (31.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of four had not received any treatment (23 percent).
  • Severity of ADHD among children ages 2-17:
    • 14.5 percent had severe ADHD
    • 43.7 percent had moderate ADHD
    • 41.8 percent had mild ADHD
  • Co-occuring conditions (children ages 2-17):
    • Two out of three children (63.8 percent) had at least one co-occuring condition.
    • Half of all children (51.5 percent) had behavioral or conduct problems.
    • One out of three children (32.7 percent) had anxiety problems.
    • One out of six children (16.8 percent) had depression.
    • About one out of seven children (13.7 percent) had autism spectrum disorder.
    • About one out of 80 children (1.2 percent) had Tourette syndrome.
    • One in a hundred adolescents (1 percent) had a substance abuse disorder.
  • By race or ethnicity (children ages 2-17):
    • 8.4 percent White
    • 10.7 percent Black
    • 6.6 percent Other
    • 6.0 percent Hispanic/Latino
    • 9.1 percent Non-Hispanic/Latino

Adults with ADHD

  • 4.4 percent of the adult US population has ADHD, but less than 20 percent of these individuals seek help for it.
  • 41.3% of adult ADHD cases are considered severe.
  • During their lifetimes, 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women.
  • About 30 to 60 percent of patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to be affected into adulthood.
  • Adults with ADHD are 5 times more likely to speed
  • Adults with ADHD are nearly 50 percent more likely to be in a serious car crash.
  • Having ADHD makes you 3 times more likely to be dead by the age of 45
  • Anxiety disorders occur in 50 percent of adults with ADHD.
Reference

Additude Magazine

CHADD- National Resource Center on ADHD