Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) is a chromosomal disorder due to 3 copies of chromosome 21, causing a number of developmental delays, medical and physical disabilities. Learning is one of the areas that is affected by the disorder. Children born with Down syndrome typically have delays in the area of gross and fine motor skills, thinking, short attention span, speech and language difficulties and sequencing. The following links and resources include information on tips and strategies for teaching children with Down syndrome for both parents and teachers.
Visual processing disorder affects the way a person sees or the ability to draw or copy. The child or the student may have difficulty with cutting, copying information accurately or may struggle to cut or paste. This is due to lack of visual motor integration between the eyes and the hands.
The following resources include information on strategies in improving motor skills and free activities and worksheets.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults
Facts and Statistics
ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior
70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
50% will continue into adulthood
ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
Children & Adolescents
The 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2–17 (Danielson et al. 2018):
6.1 million children (9.4 percent) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This includes:
About 388,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.4 percent in this age group)
2.4 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 9.6 percent in this age group)
3.3 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 13.6 percent in this age group)
5.4 million children (8.4 percent) have a current diagnosis of ADHD. This includes:
About 335,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.1 percent in this age group)
2.2 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 8.9 percent in this age group)
2.9 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 11.9 percent in this age group)
Treatment used by children ages 2-7 with a current diagnosis of ADHD:
Two out three were taking medication (62 percent).
Less than half received behavioral treatment in the past year (46.7 percent).
Nearly one out of three received a combination of medication and behavioral treatment in the past year (31.7 percent).
Nearly one out of four had not received any treatment (23 percent).
Severity of ADHD among children ages 2-17:
14.5 percent had severe ADHD
43.7 percent had moderate ADHD
41.8 percent had mild ADHD
Co-occuring conditions (children ages 2-17):
Two out of three children (63.8 percent) had at least one co-occuring condition.
Half of all children (51.5 percent) had behavioral or conduct problems.
One out of three children (32.7 percent) had anxiety problems.
One out of six children (16.8 percent) had depression.
About one out of seven children (13.7 percent) had autism spectrum disorder.
About one out of 80 children (1.2 percent) had Tourette syndrome.
One in a hundred adolescents (1 percent) had a substance abuse disorder.
By race or ethnicity (children ages 2-17):
8.4 percent White
10.7 percent Black
6.6 percent Other
6.0 percent Hispanic/Latino
9.1 percent Non-Hispanic/Latino
Adults with ADHD
4.4 percent of the adult US population has ADHD, but less than 20 percent of these individuals seek help for it.
41.3% of adult ADHD cases are considered severe.
During their lifetimes, 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women.
About 30 to 60 percent of patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to be affected into adulthood.
Adults with ADHD are 5 times more likely to speed
Adults with ADHD are nearly 50 percent more likely to be in a serious car crash.
Having ADHD makes you 3 times more likely to be dead by the age of 45
Anxiety disorders occur in 50 percent of adults with ADHD.
October is Down Syndrome Awareness Month. Down syndrome is defined as a genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. I have included articles that I have posted over the years to help educate others. Please feel free to share on other social media sites.
October is ADHD Awareness Month. A month designated to bring awareness and acceptance to understanding individuals diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The first studies on ADHD began to surface in 1902 when British Pediatrician, Sir George Still, described a group of children as disobedient and uninhibited. These behaviors were thought to be based on biology since many family members exhibited similar characteristics
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that develops when there is an abnormal cell division resulting in an extra copy of chromosome 21.
There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) accounts for 95% of cases, translocation accounts for about 4%, and mosaicism accounts for about 1%
Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition. Approximately one in every 700 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome – about 6,000 each year
Down syndrome occurs in people of all races and economic levels
The incidence of births of children with Down syndrome increases with the age of the mother. But due to higher fertility rates in younger women, 80% of children with Down syndrome are born to women under 35 years of age
People with Down syndrome have an increased risk for certain medical conditions such as congenital heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems, Alzheimer’s disease, childhood leukemia and thyroid conditions. Many of these conditions are now treatable, so most people with Down syndrome lead healthy lives
A few of the common physical traits of Down syndrome are: low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm. Every person with Down syndrome is a unique individual and may possess these characteristics to different degrees or not at all
Life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased dramatically in recent decades – from 25 in 1983 to 60 today
People with Down syndrome attend school, work, participate in decisions that affect them, have meaningful relationships, vote and contribute to society in many wonderful ways
All people with Down syndrome experience cognitive delays, but the effect is usually mild to moderate and is not indicative of the many strengths and talents that each individual possesses
The incidence of Down syndrome is between I in 1000 to 1 in 1,100 live birth worldwide.
Each year, approximately 3,000 to 5,000 children are born with Down syndrome.
60-80% of children with Down syndrome having hearing issues
40-45% of children with Down syndrome have congenital heart disease
The life expectancy increased slowly from 1900 to 1960 (by 89%) but rapidly grew from 1960 to 2007 (456%)
Life Expectancy by Race
Whites with Down syndrome in the United States had a median death at the age of 50 in 1997 compared to 25 years for African Americans and 11 for people of other races
OCD is a neurobiological condition. It is estimated that 1% to 3% of children and adolescents are affected by obsession- compulsive disorder (OCD).The DSM-IV defines OCD as persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as inappropriate and the cause of anxiety and distress. These thoughts cause obsession as a way to ease their anxiety. Your child may perform repetitive actions such as chewing food a certain number of times, refusing to eat certain foods, separation anxiety or a need for order and perfection