What is Tourette Syndrome?

According to the Tourette Association of America, tics are involuntary, repetitive movement and vocalizations. They are the defining feature of a group of childhood-onset, neurodevelopmental conditions known collectively as Tic disorders and individually as Tourette Syndrome.

Tics are common in childhood. The estimated prevalence of Tourette Syndrome disorder range from 3 to 8 per, 1,000 in school-aged children. Males are more commonly affected than females. Some people may have tic-free periods of weeks to months.

There are three types:
  1. Motor tics cause a movement including eye blinking, facial grimacing, jaw movements, and head bobbing
  2. Vocal/phonic tics produce a sound including throat clearing, grunting, hooting, and shouting
  3. Provisional tic disorders involve a person who experiences involuntary motor and/or verbal tics for one year.
Signs and Symptoms:

Tic Disorders:

  • eye blinking
  • coughing
  • throat clearing
  • sniffing
  • facial movement
  • shoulder shrugging

Vocal Tics:

  • barking or yelping
  • grunting
  • repeating what someone else says
  • shouting
  • sniffing
  • swearing
Co-Occurring Disorders Include:
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Obsessive -Compulsive Disorder
  • Learning difficulties
  • Behavior problems
  • Anxiety
  • Mood problems
  • Sleeping issues
  • Social skills and deficits

 

Tourette Syndrome-It's not what you think it is » Movement ...

Risk Factors
  • Temperamental- it is worsened by anxiety, excitement and exhaustion.
  • Environmental- observing a gesture or sound in another person my result in an individual with a tic disorder making a similar sound.
  • Genetic- genetics and environmental factor influences tic symptoms.

What is Childhood Disintegrative Disorder?

Did you know that Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is  considered part of Autism Spectrum?

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) is a condition where a child develops normally and achieves appropriate milestones up to the age of 4 and then begins to regress in both developmental and behavioral milestones and lose the skills they already learned. with a loss o skills plateauing around the age of 10.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is rare. It affects 1.7 in 100,000 and affects males at a higher rate than females. It is also known as Heller’s Syndrome and Disintegrative psychosis. The causes are unknown but may be linked to issues with the brain and nervous systems with some researchers suggesting it is some form of childhood dementia.

First discovered by Dr. Theodor Heller in 1908, Dr. Heller began publishing articles on his observation of children’s medical history in which he reported that in certain cases, children who were developing normally began to reverse at a certain age.

Signs and Symptoms

Children begin to show significant losses of earlier acquired skills in at least two of the following areas:

  • Lack of play
  • Loss of language or communication skills
  • Loss of social skills
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Lack of motor skills

The following characteristics also appear:

  • Social interaction
  • Communication
  • Repetitive interests or behaviors

Due to the small number of reported cases, it is included in the broad grouping of autism spectrum disorder in DSM-V under pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).  Although grouped with the autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, there are distinct differences. For example, children with CDD were more likely to be diagnosed with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and long term impairment of behavior and cognitive functioning.

Resources

NCBI

Summit Medical Group

36 Epilepsy Facts You Should Know

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system often caused by abnormal electrical discharges that develop into seizures. The following are additional facts on epilepsy and seizures:

  1. More people live with epilepsy than autism, spectrum disorders, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy combined.
  2. You can’t swallow your tongue during a seizure. It is physically impossible.
  3. You should never force something into the mouth of someone having a seizure.
  4. Don’t restrain someone having a seizure.
  5. Epilepsy is not contagious .
  6. Anyone can develop epilepsy.
  7. Epilepsy is not rare.
  8. 1 in 26 Americans will develop epilepsy in their lifetime.
  9. An estimated 3 million Americans and 65 million people worldwide live with epilepsy.
  10. In 2/3 of patients diagnosed with epilepsy, the cause is unknown.
  11. Up to 50,000 deaths occur annually in the U.S. from status epilepticus (prolonged seizures). (SUDEP) and other seizure-related causes such as drowning and other accidents.
  12. Between 4 and 10 out of 1,000 people on earth live with active seizures.
  13. 3.4 million people in the United States have epilepsy.
  14. Epilepsy is not contagious
  15. 1/3 of people diagnosed with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures because the available treatment does not work.
  16. SUDEP accounts for 34% of all sudden deaths in children.
  17. Epilepsy costs the U.S. approximately 15.5 billion each year.
  18. A seizure is a transient disruption of brain function due to abnormal and excessive electrical discharges in brain cells.
  19. Epilepsy is a disease of the brain that predisposes a person to excessive electrical discharges in the brain cell.
  20. It is diagnosed when 2 or more unprovoked seizures have occurred.
  21. It must be at least 2 unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart.
  22. About 14% have simple partial seizures.
  23. 36% have complex partial seizures.
  24. 5% have tonic-clonic seizures.
  25. Seizures can be caused by head trauma, stokes, brain tumor and a brain infection.
  26. Causes are unknown in 60 to 70% of cases.
  27. The prevalence is 1% of the U.S. population.
  28. Approximately 2.2 to 3 million in the U.S. have seizures.
  29. It affects all ages, socioeconomic and racial groups.
  30. Incidents are higher in children and older adults.
  31. Seizures can range from momentarily blanks to loss of awareness
  32. Almost 150,000 people in the U.S. develop epilepsy every year.
  33. No gender is likely to develop than others.
  34. 1/3 of individuals with autism spectrum disorders also have epilepsy.
  35. The prevalence of epilepsy in people with an intellectual disability is higher than the general population.
  36. It takes up to 5 times more energy for a person with epilepsy to complete even the most simple task.

Printable Autism Fact Sheet

 

Today is World Autism Awareness Day. It is a recognized day sponsored through the United Nations to bring awareness about people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

The day serves to bring individual autism organizations together around the world to aid in research diagnoses, treatment and acceptance. More than ever in these challenging times we face, tolerance, compassion and acceptance is needed to provide people with autism with necessary support.

The following fact sheet provides information on facts, prevalence, timeline, co-occurring disorders and the definition.

 

Download Fact Sheet Here

 

 

Printable Down Syndrome Fact Sheet

Today is the last day to recognize Down Syndrome Awareness Month.

You can download a free printed copy of the Down syndrome fact sheet, providing information on the types, prevalence, definition, signs and symptoms, and teaching strategies. Further information includes a list of Down syndrome organizations and foundations.

Click here to download

Free Printable Cerebral Palsy Fact Sheet

Want to learn more about Cerebral Palsy?  The following is a fact sheet that provides information on the facts of cerebral palsy including the definition and the prevalence, signs, types, and causes.

The fact sheet also includes information on teaching strategies and organizational resources.

Download fact sheet here

Autism Facts and Statistics

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts social, speech, behavioral and motor skills. It is a spectrum disorder meaning it varies from person to person. No two people have the same symptoms. It is estimated that 1% of the population is diagnosed with autism.

Click Here to download PDF article

Prevalence

About 1 in 40 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

1 in 42 boys are diagnosed with autism

1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism

100 individuals are diagnosed everyday

ASD is reported to occur in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.

ASD is 4 times more common among boys than girls.

Studies in Asia, Europe, and North American have idendified individuals with ASD  with an average prevalence of between 1% and 2%.

About 1 in 6 children diagnosed with autism also have a developmental disability.

Parents who have a child with ASD have a 2%-18% chance of having a second child diagnosed with autism

Almost half (44%) of children diagnosed with ASD has average to above average intellectual ability.

ASD commonly co-occurs with other developmental, psychiatric, neurological, chromosomal and genetic diagnoses.


Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Facts

Children and adults with Autism have significant problems in socializing with others, emotions, intense preoccupation with one or two topics, repetitive routines and motor skills.

Tend to be sensitive to sensations of sound, light or touch.

It is a common myth that autistic children can perform amazing skills such as memorizing birthdays and telephone numbers.

30% of autistic children have a seizure disorder

40% of children with autism do not speak

25-30% of children with autism have some words at 12 to 18 months, and then lose them.

Between 60% and 80% of children with ASD have a sleep-related disorder

Females tend to be more likely to show accompany intellectual disabilities.

Studies show that parents notice a developmental problem before the child’s first birthday

Lorna Wing, a psychiatrist and mother of a child with autism termed the word Autism Spectrum to describe a concept of complexities rather than a straight line from severe to mild.

Victor Lotter was the first person to  measure the prevalence of autism in a population.

Autistic Women and Girls

Stimming

  • It is also prevalent among people on the autism spectrum.
  • In fact in many cases, it is part of the diagnosis due to the repetition of stimming.
  • Stimming is often used as a means to self-regulate, self-calm and for self-expression.
  • The movements are repetitive and are used to self-stimulate the 7 senses.
  • It is often described as a repetitive motor behavior that can disrupt academic and social and other activities.
  • One of the theories behind stimming is that beta-endorphrins are released in the brain casuing an euphoric feeling which is generally a response to pain.
  • Stimming behavior. based for self-soothing and to help a child or an adult regain emotional balance.
  • Sensory Overload. Too much sensory information can lead to stress, anxiety and eventually a meltdown.

Wandering Statistics

  • Nearly half of children with autism engage in wandering behavior
  • Increased risks are associated with autism severity
  • More than one third of children with autism who wander/elope are never or rarely able to communicate their name, address, or phone number
  • Half of families report they have never received advice or guidance about elopement from a professional
  • Accidental drowning accounts for 71% of lethal outcomes, followed by traffic injuries at 18%
  • Other dangers include dehydration; heat stroke; hypothermia; falls; physical restraint; encounters with strangers
  • Accidental drowning accounted for 91% total U.S. deaths reported in children with autism due to wandering.

Image result for wandering autism

 

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

National Autism Association

Spectrum News

Developmental Disability Facts and Statistics

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments before the age of 22. A developmental disability can occur before, during or after birth. Common well-known developmental disabilities include autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and Fragile X syndrome. Here are some facts and statistics on developmental disabilities.

Click here to download PDF Format

  • Developmental Disability is a severe, long-term disability that affect cognitive ability, physical functioning or both.
  • 1 in 6 or about 15% of children aged 3 through 17 have one or more developmental disabilities.
  • Between 2014 and 2016 the prevalence of developmental disability among kids ages 3 to 17 increased from 5.76 percent to 6.99 percent.
  • Prevalence of autism increased 289.5%
  • Prevalence of ADHD increased 33.0 %
  • Males have a higher prevalence of ADHD, autism, learning disabilities, stuttering and other developmental disabilities.
  • Children from families with incomes below the federal poverty level had a higher prevalence of developmental disabilities.
  • 10% of Americans have a family member with an intellectual disability.
  • Intellectual disabilities are 25 times more common than blindness.
  • Every year 125,000 children are born with an intellectual disability
  • Approximately 85% of the intellectual disability is in the mild category.
  • About 10% of the intellectual disability is considered moderate
  • About 3-4% of the intellectual disability population is severe.
  • Only 1-2% is classified as profound.

 

Resources

National Institute of Health