Dyscalculia is defined as a learning disability specifically in math and numbers including the inability to understand the concept of numbers and applying math principles to solve problems. The following are signs and symptoms of dyscalculia:
Difficulty in counting backwards
Difficulty in recalling facts
Slow in performing calculations
Difficulty with subtractions
Difficulty using finger counting
Difficulty with the multiplication table
Poor mental math skills
Difficulty with understanding the concept of time
May show signs of anxiety when conducting math activities
May have a poor sense of direction (i.e. north, south, east, west)
Early signs of dyscalculia include:
Delays in learning how to count
Delays in recalling facts
Difficulty with time
Displays a poor memory
May lose track when counting
Difficulty sorting items by groups include color, shape, texture and size.
According to the Tourette Association of America, tics are involuntary, repetitive movement and vocalizations. They are the defining feature of a group of childhood-onset, neurodevelopmental conditions known collectively as Tic disorders and individually as Tourette Syndrome.
Tics are common in childhood. The estimated prevalence of Tourette Syndrome disorder range from 3 to 8 per, 1,000 in school-aged children. Males are more commonly affected than females. Some people may have tic-free periods of weeks to months.
There are three types:
Motor tics cause a movement including eye blinking, facial grimacing, jaw movements, and head bobbing
Vocal/phonic tics produce a sound including throat clearing, grunting, hooting, and shouting
Provisional tic disorders involve a person who experiences involuntary motor and/or verbal tics for one year.
Signs and Symptoms:
barking or yelping
repeating what someone else says
Co-Occurring Disorders Include:
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Obsessive -Compulsive Disorder
Social skills and deficits
Temperamental- it is worsened by anxiety, excitement and exhaustion.
Environmental- observing a gesture or sound in another person my result in an individual with a tic disorder making a similar sound.
Genetic- genetics and environmental factor influences tic symptoms.
Cerebral palsy is a motor disorder which results from damage to the brain occurring before, during and after birth. Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood and it is estimated that 1 in 323 individuals have been identified with cerebral palsy.
Since cerebral palsy is the result of damage to the brain, it impacts each person differently ranging from severe to mild symptoms. It is estimated that many children with cerebral palsy also have at least one co-occurring condition. For instance, 41% had co-occurring epilepsy and 40% of children were diagnosed with an intellectual disability.
Teaching strategies should focus on assistive technology, fine and gross motor skills, and personal care. Accommodations and modifications should include providing extra time for task completion.
The following links provide information on teaching strategies.