What is Executive Functioning?
According to CHADD org, Executive function skills refers to brain functions that activate, organize, integrate and manage other functions which enables individuals to account for short- and long term consequences of their actions and to plan for those results.
According to Rebecca Branstetter, author of The Everything Parent’s Guide to Children with Executive Functioning Disorder, These skills are controlled by the area of the brain called the frontal lobe and include the following:
- Task Initiation- stopping what you are doing and starting a new task
- Response Inhibition- keeping yourself from acting impulsively in order to achieve a goal
- Focus- directing your attention, keeping you focus, and managing distractions while you are working on a task
- Time Management- understanding and feeling the passage of time, planning good use of your time, and avoiding procrastination behavior.
- Working Memory- holding information in your mind long enough to do something with it (remember it, process it, act on it)
- Flexibility- being able to shift your ideas in changing conditions
- Self-Regulations- be able to reflect on your actions and behaviors and make needed changes to reach a goal
- Emotional Self-Control- managing your emotions and reflecting on your feelings in order to keep yourself from engaging in impulsive behaviors.
- Task Completion- sustaining your levels of attention and energy to see a task to the end.
- Organization- keeping track and taking care of your belongings (personal, school work) and maintaining order in your personal space.
What Causes Executive Functioning Disorder?
- a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder
- Tourette syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
- Short-term memory such ask being asked to complete a task and forgetting almost immediately.
- Difficulty processing new information
- Difficulty solving problems
- Difficulty in listening or paying attention
- issues in starting, organizing, planning or completing task
- Difficulty in multi-tasking
Issues with executive functioning often leads to a low self-esteem, moodiness, insecurities, avoiding difficult task. and low motivation
Managing Executive Functions Issues
- Create visual aids
- use apps for time management and productivity
- Request written instructions
- Create schedule and review at least twice a day
- Create checklist
The definition of orthopedic impairment under IDEA means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s education performance. Causes include:
- birth trauma
- cerebral palsy amputation
There are 3 classifications that an orthopedic impairment can fall under:
- Neuromotor impairment, this would include cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, spina bifida, and seizure disorders
- Degenerative Disease such as muscular dystrophy and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
- Musculoskeletal Disorders including scoliosis and deformed limbs.
Students with orthopedic impairments often qualify for therapy including physical and occupational therapy. assistive technology should be included for accommodating the students needs.
The following links provide resources on teaching assessment, modifications, and teaching information.
Orthopedic impairment: A guide for parents and teachers
Orthopedic impairment characteristics: Classroom modification and assistive technology
Orthopedic impairment and special needs students
Orthopedic impairment disability
Teaching strategies for mobility impaired students
Teaching strategies for orthopedic impairment
Teaching students with disabilities: Orthopedic impairment
Teaching students with orthopedic impairment
Understanding individuals with physical, health, and multiple disabilities
In some residences and group homes, individuals are being monitored for COVID19 by daily temperature readings. People with disabilities are probably used to getting their temperatures taking each time they are seen by their physician. In these challenging times, why not teach the skill of taking one own’s temperature. It is a basic independent living skill to learn.
Using a digital thermometer would probably be the most effective and it is also easy to read. teaching thermometer reading affects the following skill:
- Attention Skills
- Follow Directions
- Follow 2-step commands
- Personal Care
- Self-advocacy skills
- understand cause and effects
- able to understand numbers
- focus attention 1-5 minutes
- Understand sequences
Objective: With modeling, student will be able to accurately read the thermometer
Time: 5 minnutes
Material: digital thermometer (best used for underarm and the mouth)
- explain that a normal temperature reading is considered around 98.7 and temperature taking is done to determine if a person has a fever or is sick.
- The teaching method best used is through modeling. Explain the steps to the individual and begin by taking your own temperature first.
- Once done, inform the individual he should do the same by using the following steps:
- The student will pick up the thermometer
- The student will wash the thermometer
- The student will carefully place the tip of the thermometer under his/her tongue
- With the mouth closed, the student will leave the thermometer in until he/she hears a beeping sound
- The student will remove the thermometer
- The student will accurately read the temperature.
You can also create a temperature log, where the individual takes their temperature on a daily basis and writes down their temperature on a chart.