COVID-19 and Handwashing Powerpoint

Most news today whether it is social media, newsprint or broadcasting, focuses on the crisis of the COVID-19. It seems information changes everyday and we are still learning ways to protect ourselves. When the news of COVID-19 first appear, there was emphasis on the implications for people who have severe underlying conditions  such as heart or lung disease and diabetes. The picture painted were people that were over the age of 65 who were more likely to be at risk for developing serious complications from COVID-19.

It occurred to me that very little information indicated that people with disabilities and special risk also fall under the high risk category. for us who are parents or professionals  (in some cases both), we know the dangers of this deadly disease for children and adults with serious medical issues.

Many special needs children and adults have co-occurring issues including chronic heart disease, GI issues, diabetes, asthma, seizure disorders, GERD, and breathing issues.

For this reason, it is all the more reason to ensure that professionals, frontline staff and families know how to hand wash properly.  The Powerpoint focuses on the transmission of the virus as well as the appropriate way to wash hands. You will find the link to the Powerpoint at the bottom of the page.

COVID-19 and Hand Washing

Oatmeal Cookie Activity

This is a fun activity for students and adults with special needs who would like to work on increasing their fine motor skills. This activity includes both a coloring and tracing activity. you can make several copies to print out for additional practice at a later time. Click on the link on the bottom of the page.

Download the activity here: COLORING AND TRACING ACTIVITY

 

$5.00 Shopping Worksheet Activity

Here is a fun activity to practice working on receiving change from a $5 dollar bill. This activity focuses on:

  • task attention
  • increasing money skills
  • more/less concept
  • following a one step command
  • Identify numbers

Download shopping activity here: 5.00 shopping activity

Grilled Cheese Sandwich Lesson Plan

Goal: Increase Independent Living Skills

Lesson Objective: Student will make a grilled cheese sandwich with verbal assistance.

Prerequisite Skills: 

  • ability to use a knife
  • able to follow directions

Introduction: A fun and easy meal to make with an individual with a developmental disability is a grilled cheese sandwich. Very few ingredients are needed to make this tasty meal and it is often one of the first foods that many people learn to make.  This activity allows an opportunity for independence and a great reward when completed. The instructor will follow the following steps:

Step 1: The instructor will first make sure the person washes and dries their hands appropriately.

Step 2: The instructor will allow for choices. “What type of bread would you like to use.”, What type of cheese would you like to use?”

Step 3. Depending on the skill level, the instructor will assist the individual or place the pan n top of the stop

Step 4. The instructor will, with verbal prompting or hand over hand, ask the individual to pick the the knife.

Step 5. Once the individual picks up the knife, the instructor will verbally prompt or using hand over hand, assist the individual with cutting the butter.

Step 6. Once the butter is cut, the instructor will verbally prompt the individual to place the butter in the pan.

Step 7. While the butter is meting in the pan, the instructor will prompt the individual to take out 2 slices of bread and place on a plate

Step 8. The instructor will prompt the individual to pick up the knife and butter each slice of the bread.

Step 9. Once completed, the instructor will prompt the individual to take cheese out of the refrigerator and place on the bread.

Step 10. The instructor will prompt or assist the individual to place the sandwich into the pan

Step 11. Depending on the skill level, the instructor will turn the bread over when brown or closely supervise the individual.

Step 12. Once both sides are brown, the instructor will assist or supervise the individual removing the cheese toast with a spatula and place on a plate

Step 13. The instructor will prompt the individual to turn off the stove. i.e. “what do you think you should do next?”

Step 14. The instructor will prompt the individual to cut the cheese toast in half.

Step 15. The individual will start to eat.

Duration:10-15 minutes

Materials:

  • 2 slices of bread
  • margarine or butter
  • Cheddar or American cheese
  • frying Pan
  • knife
  • spatula

Skills Taught:

  • Attention skills
  • Choice-making
  • Fine motor
  • Independent living skills
  • Listening comprehensive
  • Memory
  • Sensory
  • Sequencing
  • Task attention

Special Considerations

Be mindful of any protocols for the individuals. make sure you are serving the meal with the right consistency. For example does the individual require his/her food to be cut up or are they able to eat whole foods?

Identify Money Freebie

Learn to identify coins is one of the first steps in learning to count and understanding money management skills. The following worksheets will help to reinforce the ability to recognize the various denominations of coins.

The lesson plan below is a helpful tool to reinforce recognizing coins.  Children with intellectual disabilities and special needs learn best through visual demonstrations and pictures. Remember to allow extra time to complete the task and use simple directions.

Lesson Plan: Identify Coins

Objective: the Student will successfully identify coins

Performance Criteria: The student will identify the correct coin, 3 out of 5 trials

Materials Needed:

  • coin worksheets
  • actual penny, nickle, dime and quarter
  • pencil

Steps:

  1. the instructor will use real coins and identify the coin to the student
  2. the instructor will use one coin at a time, starting with the smallest demoninator
  3. The instructor will pick up the penny and state, “this is a penny.”
  4. The instructor will then ask the student to pick up the penny
  5. The instructor will aske the student to describe the penny
  6. The instructor will ask the student the value of the penny.
  7. Once completed, the instructor will have the student complete the worksheet
  8. The insstructor will continue with the rest of the coins.

Circle Nickle Worksheet

id coin worksheet

circle penny worksheet

circle dime

Memorial Day Sensory Activities

Memorial Day is an American holiday observed to honor the men and women who died while serving in the U.S. Military. It originated following the Civil War and became an official holiday in 1971.

Memorial Day is also an opportunity to work on fun Memorial Day activities. Children and adults with special needs lean best when using a multi-sensory approach. This helps to stimulate learning and engage individuals on various levels of learning.

The activities and lessons that I have chosen focus on visual and tactile stimulation and includes both math and reading activities. The craft activities work to improve fine motor skills.

 

American flag on a pencil craft- Printable templates

Craft stick flag– U.S. flag made from craft sticks

Free Memorial Day packs- packets includes clip cards, word problems, fill in and missing numbers

Patriotic Pinwheel– Craft easy to make pinwheel

USA Wreath– Simple red, white and blue wreath made out of construction paper.

 

 

Bathing Training Curriculum For Direct Support Professionals

Click here to print PDF version of article
Studies show that most accidents occur in the home. There are a number of factors that increases this number in a residential setting. For example, Staff are responsible for providing care to more than one person and the may also be responsible for a number of other duties including, preparing dinner, giving out medication and working on performance goals. Given these factors, it is vital that attention and skill is given during bathing time. One minute away, could lead to a disastrous event.

The following is a training curriculum that serves to train staff (Direct care Professionals) on bath safety. I have included the lesson plan also in a PDF format and a demonstrative checklist. Once completed, staff should be able to show their competency level in bathing an individual safely. This training also satisfies and supports Core Competency 5 (safety) and Core Competency 6(Having a home).

Title:  Bath Safety Training

Description Training:

This module is intended to provide direct support professionals with principles and strategies which will assist them in the preparation, supervision and assistance necessary to ensure the safety of people with developmental disabilities. The first section focuses on identifying and evaluating required staff supervision. Section 2 includes the responsibilities of staff during bathing time.

Learning Objective(s):

  • Demonstrates steps to ensure all necessary bathing items are in the bathroom before preparing for bathing time.
  • Evaluate the level of supervision needed
  • Define the characteristics of a burn
  • Distinguish temperature for bathing vs. showering
  • Identifying the process of bathing residents to ensure the process is safely carried out.
  • Explain the risk for people with disabilities

Maximum Group Size:

Training segment 10- competency portion should be conducted one person at a time.

Blooms Taxonomy:

  • Remember
  • Understand
  • Apply

Required Employees: Direct Support Professionals

Materials:

  • Handout
  • Handout
  • Competency test
  • Competency
Training:  1 Hour
Objective 1: The participants will be able to explain bathing risk for people with disabilities

Lecture:

The trainer will begin this session with a brief introduction on the magnitude of the problem regarding accidental deaths, bathing injuries including scalding. In your own words, please say the following:

Studies show that after the swimming pool, the bathtub is the second major site of drowning in the home including residential settings with seizures accounting for most of the common causes of bathtub drowning.

The National Safety Council reported that one person dies everyday from using bathtub in the United States. That more people have died from bathtub accidents than all forms of road vehicle accidents.

Injuries from the bathroom included slipping and falling when entering or exiting the bathtub or shower.

A study concluded by the State University of New York State found bathing difficulties included maintaining balance when bathing and making transfers.

Inform participants the following:

Near-drowning happens very quickly. Within three minutes of submersion, most people are unconscious, and within five minutes the brain begins to suffer from lack of oxygen. Abnormal heart rhythms (cardiac dysrhythmias) often occur in near-drowning cases, and the heart may stop pumping (cardiac arrest). The blood may increase in acidity (acidosis) and, under some circumstances, near drowning can cause a substantial increase or decrease in the volume of circulating blood. If not rapidly reversed, these events cause permanent damage to the brain

Ask – How much water does it take to drown?

Answer- inches of water in the bathtub. Any amount of water that covers the mouth and nose.

Who is at -risk?

Tell the participants the following people are considered high risk for accidents and drowning in the bathtub or shower:

  • Older people
  • Residence with a history of seizures
  • Residents diagnosed with dementia or Alzheimer
  • Residents who require assistance or supervision for mobility, transfer or ambulation.
  • Lack of understanding of one’s own physical and cognitive limitations.

Scalding

The trainer will introduce the segment on scald burns. Tell participants that individuals with physical, cognitive and emotional challenges are at high risk for burn injuries due to mobility impairments, muscle weakness and slower reflexes.  Further explain that, sensory impairments can result in decrease sensation in the hands and feet with the resident not realizing the water is too hot.

The instructor will discuss the following handout:

Time and Temperature relationship to Severe Burns

Water Temperature Time for a third degree burn to occur
155° F 1 second
148° F 2 seconds
140° F 5 seconds
133° F 15 seconds
127° F 1 minute
124° F 3 minute
120° F 5 minutes
100° F Safe temperature for bathing

 

Objective 2: Define the Characteristics of a Burn

In this section, the trainer will give the definition of a burn, Explain to participants that a burn is damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by heat chemicals or electricity.

Further explain, Burns range is severity from minor injuries that require no medical treatment to serious, life-threatening and fatal injuries. Further explain that burns are categorized by degrees. Have participants turn to the handout on burns.

Superficial (first degree burns)

  • Causes : sunburn, minor scalds
  • Generally heal in 3-5 days with no scarring

Characteristics;

  • Minor damage to the skin
  • Color- pink to red
  • Painful
  • Skin is dry without blisters

Partial thickness (second degree) burns

  • Damages, but does not destroy top two layers of the skin
  • Generally heal in 10-21 days
  • Does not require skin graft*
  • Skin is moist, wet and weepy
  • Blisters are present • Color – bright pink to cherry red
  • Lots of edema (swelling)
  • Very painful

Full thickness (third degree) burns

  • Destroys all layers of the skin
  • May involve fat, muscle and bone
  • Will require skin graft for healing*
  • Skin may be very bright red or dry and leathery, charred, waxy white, tan or brown
  • Charred veins may be visible
  • Area is insensate – the person is unable to feel touch in areas of full thickness injury

*Except for very small (about the size of a quarter) full thickness burns will require a skin graft to heal.  The patient is taken to the operating room where all the dead tissue is surgically removed. Skin is taken or harvested off an unburned or healed part of that person’s body and grafted or transplanted to the clean burn area. In seven to 14 days, this grafted skin “takes” or adheres to the area and becomes the person’s permanent skin. The donor site (where the skin was harvested from) is treated like a partial thickness burn and heals within 1- to 14 days.

Objective 3: Identify the process of bathing residents to ensure the process is safely carried out

The trainer will discuss the importance of following the appropriate steps when giving a resident a shower:

When escorting a resident to the bathroom, the following items should be gathered and taken to the bathroom:

  • Washcloth/bath sponge
  • Towel
  • Body wash/soap
  • Body lotion
  • Toothbrush
  • Toothpaste
  • Mouthwash
  • Hair shampoo
  • Hair conditioner

The trainer will remind participants not to leave the participants in the bathroom alone under any circumstances for those requiring supervision.

Ask- What circumstance might a person leave the person alone.

The participant should respond- none.

Click on the link below to download the competency checklist:

COMPETENCY DEMONSTRATION CHECKLIST

Click on the link below to download the training in Word format

bathing module

 

 

Free Lesson Plans That Teach Money Skills

Money skills teaches more than identifying coins and bills. Teaching children with disabilities also helps to strengthen fine motor skills, task initiation, and sequencing skills.

The following websites provide activities and lesson plans which are free to download on a variety of activities:

Education World- A money math match activity where students will learn that different combinations of coins can represent the same amount of money.

Money Instructor– Free lesson plans on basic money skills including counting money, money math, vocabulary, coloring, handwriting, tracing activities and money games.

Practical Money Skills– A website designed to teach money skills including special needs children and adults. Includes lesson plans on making decisions, shopping, banking services and understanding credit. The website includes a teacher’s guide, student activities and PowerPoint presentations.

The Teachers Corner– A generated money worksheet. The worksheets allow you to choose from different currencies.

United States Currency Education Program– Offers a wide range of free education and training resources including money coloring sheets and printable play money

United States Mint-Produces circulating coinage in the United States. This webpage includes lessons for grades K-12 with lessons on each of the coins which are free to download.

Shopping Center Teaching Activities For Children and Adults With Special Needs

Shopping Centers (or malls as we call them in North America) provide a great way for customers to walk from one store to another without the hassles of having to leave one store in order to go into another. Through the years, Shopping centers  have added on movie theatres, arcades, and food eateries. This has led to a variety of ways of teaching children and adults with disabilities a number of skills.

 

Money Management.

Increasing money skills can be used in almost all areas of a shopping mall. Opportunities include stores such as banking, clothing , restaurants, etc. examples of items to teach include:

  • Will identify coins
  • Will identify money
  • Will count change
  • Will create a budget
  • will fill out deposit slip
  • Will fill out a withdrawal slip
  • Will use an ATM
Sensory

A shopping center provides a low-cost and effective way of arousing more of  more of the five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch). Yankee Candle offers candles with a variety of fragrances including apple pumpkin, apple spice, beachwood, black cherry, etc.  Bath and Body Works also provides samples for both olfactory (smell) and touch. Samples of fragrances include lotions, cream, massage oils and fragrance mist. Window shopping is an additional opportunity to enhance visual cues with teaching a number of basic skills.  Other places include day spas, massage chairs and nail salons. Examples of sensory teaching activities include:

Window Shopping (Visual)
  • Will describe the color of the outfits
  • Will identify which items cost the most
  • Will describe how many of the outfits are the same, different
  • Will describe the various shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangular)
  • Will count the number of items in the window
Olfactory (Smell)
  • Will identify a good smell
  • Will identify a bad smell
  • Will identify the smell (i.e. smells like apples)
Tactile (Touch)
  • Will identify the object
  • Will tolerate hand massage
  • Will touch the object
  • Will describe the shape of the object

***  Be mindful some children and adults may have sensory processing issues and can be oversensitive to sights, textures, flavors and smells.

Social Skills

Teaching social skills involves communication, decision-making, self-management and relationship building. Locations in a shopping center to develop these skills includes, eatery and restaurants, banks, department stores and movie theatres. Samples of teaching social skills includes:

  • Will greet the store associate
  • Will say thank you
  • When promoted, will ask for help
  • Will wait patiently
  • Will make eye contact
  • Will use appropriately voice tone
Teaching Prompts

A few guidelines in teaching new skills:

  • Teach a new skill at least 2-3 times. The shopping center allows multiple opportunities to work on a number of skills including money management, and social skills.
  • Allow the person to think for themselves use prompt levels to help navigate levels of independence: Independent, verbal, gestural and physical.
  • Allow for real choice-making. Choice is more realistic when it involves at least 3 items or more. Choosing a new outfit or an item from a menu are perfect examples.
  • Always remember to praise!