What is Person-Centered Planning?
Person-Centered Planning (PCP) is a set of approaches designed to assist someone to plan their life and supports. It is used as a life planning model to enable individuals with disabilities to increase their personal self-determination and improve their own independence.
A person-centered plan is use to communicate who they are, their likes and dislikes, to express their wants and needs and what works for them.
Resources and Templates– An information and resource site for person-centered thinking, planning and practices including tools, templates and planning for older adults.
Manual for Person-Centered Planning Facilitators– Created for person-centered planning facilitators developed by the Institute on Community Integration UAP University of Minnesota. Contains topics on preparing a checklist, facilitating a plan, follow-up and challenging situations with difficult group members.
Circle of Support Workbook– Developed by the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities. Provides an introduction to starting a circle of support group for individuals with disabilities.
Essential Lifestyle Planning- A guide process designed to help the person discover what matters to them the most.
Essential Lifestyle Planning Forms- The Delaware Division of Developmental Disabilities Services provide planning form tools including personal profile, and workbook.
Inclusion Press– Resources available to purchase and download for free. Information on person-centered planning- PATH, MAPS and Circle of Support. The website also includes resources on inclusion.
Person-Centered Planning Relationship Map– Free download relationship map including instructions on completing the map.
PATH- Planning Alternative Tomorrows’ with Hope- uses a visual tool to detail the future
Personal Futures Planning- An ongoing process where the team replaces system-centered methods with person-centered planning.
A Brief Guide to Personal Futures Planning – A 25 page booklet which provides information on building a personal profile, using MAPS, and components of the Personal Futures Planning process.
Planning for the Future– A workbook to help students, their families and professionals to plan for life after high school. Using a person-centered approach to identify the student’s strength.
According to the American Speech Language Hearing Association, there are over 2 million people with significant expressive language impairment who use AAC. AAC users including people with the following disorders; autism, cerebral palsy, dual sensory impairments, genetic syndromes, intellectual disability, multiple disabilities, hearing impairment, disease, stroke, and head injury.
According to the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Organization. AAC is a set of tools and strategies that an individual uses to solve everyday communicative challenges. Communication can take many forms such as: speech, a shared glance, text, gestures, facial expressions, touch, sign language, symbols, pictures, speech-generating devices, etc. Everyone uses multiple forms of communication, based upon the context and our communication partner. Effective communication occurs when the intent and meaning of one individual is understood by another person. The form is less important than the successful understanding of the message.
The types of AAC includes both low-tech and high tech. Low tech AAC includes symbol charts, PECS, and communication boards, while high tech AAC include electronic devices such computers, tablets and devices.
The following information provides resources, articles and tips on using AAC:
What is an Invisible Disability?
According to the Invisible Disabilities Association, the term invisible disability refers to symptoms such as debilitating pain, fatigue, dizziness, cognitive dysfunction, brain injuries, learning differences, mental health disorders, as well as hearing and visual impairments. They are not always obvious to the onlooker, but can sometimes or always limit daily activities range from mild challenges to severe limitations and vary from person to person
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults typically, a person with ADHD, the difficulties lies in the part of the brain that allows people to perform higher level task known as the executive function. 90% of people with ADHD also have an executive function disorder. This is the part of the brain that engages in goal-direction and self-regulations.
Two Types of ADHD:
Types of ADHD
Type 1: Inattention Without Hyperactivity
- Trouble paying attention
- Trouble following direction
- Trouble following through with task
- Easily distracted
- Seems disorganized or careless
- Slow to process information
Type 2: Hyperactivity Without Inattention
- Trouble paying attention
- Impulsive speech and action
- Excessive talking
- Difficulty waiting turns
- May have a quick temper
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts social, speech, behavioral and motor skills. It is a spectrum disorder meaning it varies from person to person. No two people have the same symptoms. It is estimated that 1% of the population is diagnosed with autism.
Dyslexia is also known as a language-based disability. It is defined as difficulties with accurate and word recognition and by poor spelling which can affect reading fluency, reading comprehension, recall, decoding, writing, spelling, and sometime speech. Signs of dyslexia in adults include:
- Poor spelling
- Avoids writing task
- Gifted and creative
- Difficulty in following oral and written instructions
- Difficulty staying on task
- High level of frustration
- Difficulty in retaining information
- Test-taking anxiety.
- Highly curious
- Good communication of stories read to them
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) according to the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome describes the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These affects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with lifelong implications.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is not a diagnosed rather, it is a term that is used to describe a wide-range of effects on a person whose mother drank alcohol during her pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, show in three areas: abnormal facial characteristics, slowed growth and the central nervous system.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders affects each person differently. Signs and symptoms include the following:
- Abnormal facial features including a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip
- Small head size
- Shorter than average height
- Poor coordination
- Hyperactive behavior
- Difficulty with attention
- Poor memory
- Difficulty in school
- Learning disabilities
- Speech and language delays
- Intellectual disability or low IQ
- Poor reasoning and judgement skills
- Sleep and sucking problem
- vision and hearing problems
- Processing information
- Problems with the heart and kidneys
- Poor concept of time
- Trouble getting along with others
- Staying on task
Sensory Processing Disorder
Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD, formally known as sensory integration dysfunction) is a condition in which the brain has difficulty in receiving information from the senses.
Signs and symptoms may include:
· Common sounds may be overwhelming
· Hard to engage in conversation or play
While Sepsis is a severe life-threatening medical condition, it can also affect people with disabilities. According to the Centers for Diseases and Control (CDC), Sepsis is the body’s extreme response to an infection. It is a life-threatening medical emergency. Sepsis happens when an infection you already have —in your skin, lungs, urinary tract, or somewhere else—triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Without timely treatment, sepsis can rapidly lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Sepsis kills more than 250,000 people a year with 1.5 million diagnosed each year.
Signs and Symptoms
- An initial infection
- High heart rate
- heavy breathing
Severe sepsis occurs during organ failure. signs include:
- decrease urination
- breathing problems
- body chills
- extreme weakness
Sepsis is caused by:
- Kidney infection
- Bloodstream infections.
if you work with an individual displaying any of these signs and symptoms, seek medical attention.
Sepsis Overview– Science Direct
What is Sepsis?– Sepsis Alliance
Abuse and Neglect
Teaching Material on Choking
State Agencies Choking Alerts
Overview of Developmental Disabilities
According the the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Disability affects approximate 61 million, or nearly 1 in 4 (26%) people in the United States living in communities. Disability affects more than one billion people worldwide.1,2 According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, people “. . . with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory [such as hearing or vision] impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.”
While the road has made great strives in community integration, we still have a long way to go until full inclusion is met worldwide. For some people with disabilities, participation may be only defined as being physically present in a community but without any connection such as going to a shopping store or attending an event. The next level includes encounters at a nail salon, bowling, shopping, etc and full integration includes connecting with others in the community such as hanging out with people at a sports bar with and without disabilities or attending religious services including becoming a part of the choir or serving as an usher.
The following questions created by the Council on Quality and Leaderships serves as a great barometer in measuring the quality of community inclusion:
- Who do you know in your community?
- Who do you spend most of your time with?
- When you go places, who do you meet with?
- What kind of interactions do you have with people?
- What kinds of things do you do with other people?
The following are articles on the importance of community inclusion among individuals with disabilities and the definition:
5 ways to make community inclusion work– White Hawk Advocacy
A sharing of ideas on community inclusion for people with disabilities– University of Connecticut Center for Developmental Disabilities.
Community barrier to participation experienced by people with disabilities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ) CDC
Community Inclusion– newfdn.org
What does community inclusion look like? – National Disability Insurance Scheme
What is community inclusion all about and why does it matter?– Pioneer Center for Human Services
What Is Community Inclusion & Why Is It a Win-Win Scenario?– Community Mainstreaming
What We Mean When We Talk About Inclusion– Institute for Community Inclusion
The following are community inclusion ideas and suggestions.
11 Ways to Promote Community Support for Students with Disabilities– Brooks Publishing
13 ideas for making your community more inclusive – Union for Reform Judaism
The following includes a staff training module on community inclusion.
Community Inclusion Module– Illinois Department of Human Services