Section 504 is a federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education (Edefines a physical or mental impairment as any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive; digestive; genito-urinary; hemic and lymphatic; skin; and endocrine; or any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.
Dyslexia is the most common learning disability. It is defined as language-based learning disability. Research shows that 1 in 5 people are dyslexic. It is a myth that people with dyslexia see words backwards, rather, letters such as b-d are reversed due tp deficits interpreting left and right. The best way for children to learn to read is through a multi-sensory approach. The following links include tips, strategies and ways to accommodate a student with dyslexia.
A few weeks ago, I had the opportunity to speak to a parent who voiced her frustration with her daughter’s school. Although her daughter is diagnosed with autism, she falls on the mild range of the spectrum meaning her deficits are ignored. This becomes challenging for a teacher who may not recognize the signs and symptoms of an autistic child.
Girls, in particular, often develop the ability to disappear in a large group. Imagine the amount of energy it takes to pretend you hold the same characteristics of others. This leads to both depression and anxiety in children with autism. There are also sensory challenges a student with autism may face including auditory, visual and tactile.
Reading non-verbal cues forces a child and even some autistic adults to work harder everyday which causes exhaustion and can possibly lead to anxiety.
There are a number of ways to accommodate a student with autism. If you are a teacher, read as much information as you can on autism. each child is different so it will help to get feedback from parents who can help provide the right accommodations.
The following articles provide great information on both modifications and accommodations which can be put into the child’s IEP:
Studies suggests that between 4-7% of students have experience difficulty in math compared to 26% of children with ADHD.
This may be the result of the working memory, problem solving skills and inattentive skills all characteristics of a student with ADHD
What is Dyscalculia?
Dyscalculia is defined as a learning disability specifically in math and numbers including the inability to understand the concept of numbers and applying math principles to solve problems. The following are signs and symptoms of dyscalculia:
- Difficulty in counting backwards
- Difficulty in recalling facts
- Slow in performing calculations
- Difficulty with subtractions
- Difficulty using finger counting
- Difficulty with the multiplication table
- Poor mental math skills
- Difficulty with understanding the concept of time
- May show signs of anxiety when conducting math activities
- May have a poor sense of direction (i.e. north, south, east, west)
Early signs of dyscalculia include:
- Delays in learning how to count
- Delays in recalling facts
- Difficulty with time
- Displays a poor memory
- May lose track when counting
- Difficulty sorting items by groups include color, shape, texture and size.
Students with diagnosed with ADHD qualify for accommodations in the classroom. Here are a few suggestions:
The ADHD magazine, ADDitude suggests the following accommodations to help students with ADHD and Dyscalculia:
- Allow extra time on test
- Provide frequent checks for accuracy during classroom activities
- List clearly numbered steps/procedures for multi-step problems
- Use individual dry-erase boards
- Reduce the number of problems you assign
VeryWell suggests the following accommodations for students expressing difficulties in math:
- Allow the student to use desk copies of math facts such as multiplication table factsheet
- Allow the use of calculations in the classroom
- Provide models of sample problems and allow the students to use these models as a reference
- Decrease the number of math problems
- Allow the students to use graph paper rather than notebook paper
- Provide the student with review summaries to help prepare for tests
Resource Articles To Read
Studies show that in the United States, 6.4 million children between the ages of 4-17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. The average age of ADHD diagnosis is 7. Males are almost three times to be diagnosed with ADHD than females.
The DSM-V defines ADHD as a persistent pattern of attention and or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning of development. Inattention symptoms include the following:
- often fails to give close attention to details
- often has difficulty sustaining attention in task or play activities
- often does not listen when spoken to directly
- Often does not follow through on instructions
- Often has difficulty organizing task and activities often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in task that requires sustained mental effort.
Hyperactive symptoms include:
- trouble paying attention
- excessive talking
- loud interaction with others
- frequent interventions
- may have a quick temper
The following links provide tools, resources and information for parents and special education educators on providing support to children diagnosed with ADHD.
Information on classroom accommodations including teaching techniques, learning style, schedule, environment, material, assistance and behavior management.
10 ways to support students with hyperactivity and attention needs (The Starr Spangled Planner)
Accommodations for ADHD students (ADDCoach4U)
Classroom accommodations for ADHD(Understood)
Top 20 ADHD accommodations and modifications that work (Promoting Success Blog)
Classroom Tips and Strategies
The following links are tips and strategies that are specific to teaching techniques and helpful information on behavior approaches, rewards, eliminating distractions and seating arrangements
15 strategies to help students with ADHD (Student Savvy)
30 ideas for teaching children with ADHD (Kelly Bear)
ADHD and piano lesson teaching strategies (Teach Piano Today)
ADHD Teaching Strategies for the Classroom( Promoting Success Blog)
How can teachers help students with ADHD (Education World)
Ideas and strategies for kids with ADD and learning disabilities (Child Development Institute)
Setting up the classroom (ADD in Schools)
Supporting students with ADHD (Free Spirit Publishing)
Teaching students with ADHD: Instructional strategies and practice (U.S. Department of Education)
Tips for teaching students with ADHD(ADHD Kids Rock)
Tips and information from websites on helping students concentrate in the classroom.
5 simple concentration building techniques for kids with ADHD (Empowering Parents)
5 ways to improve your child’s focus (Understood)
Ways to improve concentration in kids with ADHD (Brain Balance)
Executive functioning helps students analyze a task, planning, organization, time management and finishing a task. The following links provide articles on understand executive functioning and its relationship to ADHD.
Classroom strategies for executive functioning (Understood)
Executive functioning explained and 20 strategies for success (Minds in Bloom)
Executive function skills (CHADD)
Executive Functioning Issues (Understood)
Handwriting for kids with ADHD (Look! We’re Learning)