Facts and Statistics- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is defined as a disorder that includes two core symptoms- obsessions and compulsions. According to the Census for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obsessions are defined by:

  • Thoughts, impulses, or images that occur over and over again. These thoughts, impulses or images are unwanted. They cause a lot of anxiety and stress.
  • The person who has these thoughts, impulses or images tries to ignore them or tries to make them go away.

Compulsions are defined as:

  • Repeated behaviors or thoughts over and over again or according to certain rules that must be followed exactly in order to make an obsession go away.
  • The person feels that the purpose of the behaviors or thoughts is to prevent or reduce distress or prevent some feared event or situation.

The following are facts and statistics on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:

  • 1.2% of U.S. adults had OCD in the past year.
  • OCD was higher for females (1.8%) than males (0.5%).
  • Among adults with OCD, approximately one half (50.6%) had serious impairment
  • 34.8% of adults with OCD had moderate impairment
  • 14.6% had mild impairment.
  • OCD affects 2.2 million adults
  • The average onset is 19 with 25% of cases occurring by age 14
  • One-third of affected adults first experience symptoms in childhood
  •  17% of autistic people may specifically have OCD
  • Because of similar characteristics, it is often overlooked
  • It affects people of all races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds
  • OCD is one of the top 20 causes of illness-related disability worldwide for individuals between 15 and 44 years of age
  • 1 in 40 adults are affected.
  • 1 in 100 children are affected
  • Other conditions may co-exist with OCD including anxiety, bipolar, ADHD, autism spectrum, Tourette syndrome, and major depressive disorder.
  • Worldwide, OCD is approximately 2% of the general population
  • OCD ranks 10th place among all diseases
  •  1 in every 200 children has the disorder 60 to 70% of OCD children improve significantly with therapy.
  • Many people still hide their OCD behaviors.
Beyond OCD.org
Healthy Place.org
National Institute of Mental Health

Spinal Cord Injuries-Data and Statistics

Facts and Statistics
  • Each year, around the world, between 250,000 and 500,000 people suffer from a spinal cord injury.
  • The majority of spinal cord injuries are due to preventable causes such as road traffic crashes, falls or violence.
  • Spinal cord injury is associated with lower rates of school enrollment and economic participation.

Spinal Cord Injuries Are Most Commonly caused by:

 

Age of Injury

The average age of injury has increased from 20 years during the 1970’s to currently 42 years of age.

Gender

Males account for approximately 80% of new spinal cord injury cases.

Life Expectancies

Life expectancies for persons with SCI continue to increase, but are still somewhat below life expectancies.

 

References

Foundation for Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Care and Cure

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center

Spinal Cord Injury News Blog

World Health Organization

Data and Statistics- Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

  • Fetal alcohol disorders range from mild intellectual and behavioral problems to extreme disorders that lead to profound disabilities or premature death.
  • FAS are not heredity: they are 100 percent preventable the sole cause is prenatal alcohol exposure.
  • Of the children heavily exposed to alcohol before birth, about 40 percent are estimated to exhibit fetal alcohol disorders, with 4 percent affected by full blown fetal alcohol syndrome.
  • Women who give birth to a child with FAS are 800 times more likely to give birth to subsequent children with the syndrome than are women who have never given birth to a child with the syndrome.
  • Each year, there are four times as many infants born with fetal alcohol disorders as there are infants born with muscular dystrophy, spina bifida and Down syndrome combined.
  • 15 out of 100 women of childbearing age do not know that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is dangerous.
  • FASD affects about 40,000 newborns each year
  • A survey of pediatrician reported in the journal Pediatrics revealed that only 13 percent routinely discussed the risk of drinking during pregnancy with their adolescent patients.

  • According to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1 in 9 pregnant women binge drink during the first trimester.
  • FASD are 100% incurable
  • 60% of individuals with FASD find themselves in legal trouble at some point in their lives.
  • There is a high prevalence of epilepsy (5.9%) in individuals with FASD compared with individuals who did not have the disorder.
  • 94% of individuals heavily exposed to alcohol in the womb are diagnosed with ADHD
  • It is estimated a lifetime cost for one individual with FASD is 2 million
  • 50% of adults with FASD were clinically depressed

SEPTEMBER IS FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER AWARENESS MONTH

Williams Syndrome- Facts and Statistics

Click here to download PDF article

May is Williams Syndrome Awareness Month. It is a rare genetic condition that affects over 1 in 10,000 people worldwide. If you teach in a special needs classroom or work in an adult day habilitation program, it is likely you have experienced working and teaching a student or individual diagnosed with Williams Syndrome. Below you will find some interesting facts and statistics on the disorder:

  • It is a genetic condition that is present a birth.
  • It is a developmental disorder
  • Tend to have a mild or moderate intellectual disability.
  • It is also known as Beuren Syndrome and Williams-Beuren Syndrome.
  • The symptoms were first described by John C.P. Williams in 1961.
  • A year later, German Physician, A.J. Beuren described three new incidents of patients with similar facial features.
  • It is caused by the spontaneous deletion of 26-28 genes on Chromosome #7
  • The deletion is caused by either the sperm or the egg.
  • The deletion is present at the time of conception
  • The most common symptoms of Williams Syndrome includes unusual facial features and heart defects.
  • The diagnosis is typically confirmed after identifying facial features and genetic testing.
  • An individual with Williams Syndrome has a 50% chance of passing the disorder on to their children.
  • Williams Syndrome affects 1 in 10,000 people worldwide.
  • An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States are affected.
  • It occurs in both males and females equally
  • It is found in every culture
  • Individuals with Williams Syndrome tend to be overly friendly.
  • People with Williams Syndrome often have difficulty with visual-spatial tasks
  • Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in approximately 75 percent of children
  • By the age of 30, the majority of individuals with Williams Syndrome have pre-diabetes or diabetes.

 

 

References

Genetics Home Reference

National Organizations for Rare Diseases

William Syndrome Association

Autism Facts and Statistics

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts social, speech, behavioral and motor skills. It is a spectrum disorder meaning it varies from person to person. No two people have the same symptoms. It is estimated that 1% of the population is diagnosed with autism.

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Prevalence

About 1 in 40 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

1 in 42 boys are diagnosed with autism

1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism

100 individuals are diagnosed everyday

ASD is reported to occur in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.

ASD is 4 times more common among boys than girls.

Studies in Asia, Europe, and North American have idendified individuals with ASD  with an average prevalence of between 1% and 2%.

About 1 in 6 children diagnosed with autism also have a developmental disability.

Parents who have a child with ASD have a 2%-18% chance of having a second child diagnosed with autism

Almost half (44%) of children diagnosed with ASD has average to above average intellectual ability.

ASD commonly co-occurs with other developmental, psychiatric, neurological, chromosomal and genetic diagnoses.


Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Facts

Children and adults with Autism have significant problems in socializing with others, emotions, intense preoccupation with one or two topics, repetitive routines and motor skills.

Tend to be sensitive to sensations of sound, light or touch.

It is a common myth that autistic children can perform amazing skills such as memorizing birthdays and telephone numbers.

30% of autistic children have a seizure disorder

40% of children with autism do not speak

25-30% of children with autism have some words at 12 to 18 months, and then lose them.

Between 60% and 80% of children with ASD have a sleep-related disorder

Females tend to be more likely to show accompany intellectual disabilities.

Studies show that parents notice a developmental problem before the child’s first birthday

Lorna Wing, a psychiatrist and mother of a child with autism termed the word Autism Spectrum to describe a concept of complexities rather than a straight line from severe to mild.

Victor Lotter was the first person to  measure the prevalence of autism in a population.

Autistic Women and Girls

Stimming

  • It is also prevalent among people on the autism spectrum.
  • In fact in many cases, it is part of the diagnosis due to the repetition of stimming.
  • Stimming is often used as a means to self-regulate, self-calm and for self-expression.
  • The movements are repetitive and are used to self-stimulate the 7 senses.
  • It is often described as a repetitive motor behavior that can disrupt academic and social and other activities.
  • One of the theories behind stimming is that beta-endorphrins are released in the brain casuing an euphoric feeling which is generally a response to pain.
  • Stimming behavior. based for self-soothing and to help a child or an adult regain emotional balance.
  • Sensory Overload. Too much sensory information can lead to stress, anxiety and eventually a meltdown.

Wandering Statistics

  • Nearly half of children with autism engage in wandering behavior
  • Increased risks are associated with autism severity
  • More than one third of children with autism who wander/elope are never or rarely able to communicate their name, address, or phone number
  • Half of families report they have never received advice or guidance about elopement from a professional
  • Accidental drowning accounts for 71% of lethal outcomes, followed by traffic injuries at 18%
  • Other dangers include dehydration; heat stroke; hypothermia; falls; physical restraint; encounters with strangers
  • Accidental drowning accounted for 91% total U.S. deaths reported in children with autism due to wandering.

Image result for wandering autism

 

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

National Autism Association

Spectrum News

Developmental Disability Facts and Statistics

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments before the age of 22. A developmental disability can occur before, during or after birth. Common well-known developmental disabilities include autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and Fragile X syndrome. Here are some facts and statistics on developmental disabilities.

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  • Developmental Disability is a severe, long-term disability that affect cognitive ability, physical functioning or both.
  • 1 in 6 or about 15% of children aged 3 through 17 have one or more developmental disabilities.
  • Between 2014 and 2016 the prevalence of developmental disability among kids ages 3 to 17 increased from 5.76 percent to 6.99 percent.
  • Prevalence of autism increased 289.5%
  • Prevalence of ADHD increased 33.0 %
  • Males have a higher prevalence of ADHD, autism, learning disabilities, stuttering and other developmental disabilities.
  • Children from families with incomes below the federal poverty level had a higher prevalence of developmental disabilities.
  • 10% of Americans have a family member with an intellectual disability.
  • Intellectual disabilities are 25 times more common than blindness.
  • Every year 125,000 children are born with an intellectual disability
  • Approximately 85% of the intellectual disability is in the mild category.
  • About 10% of the intellectual disability is considered moderate
  • About 3-4% of the intellectual disability population is severe.
  • Only 1-2% is classified as profound.

 

Resources

National Institute of Health

10 Important Facts On Trisomy 18

Today is National Trisomy Awareness Day. Below are 10 important facts on Trisomy 18.

  • It is also known as Edwards Syndrome
  • It is a condition caused by an error in cell division
  • An extra chromosome in 18 develops
  • Occurs in 1 out of every 2500 pregnancies in the United States
  • It is 1 in 6000 live births
  • Only 50% of babies who are carried to term will be born alive
  • Children are often born with heart defects
  • Features include a small head, small jaw, clenched fists and severe intellectual disabilities
  • It is named after John Hilton Edwards, who first described the syndrome in 1960
  • It affects different organ systems

 

25 Developmental Disability Links and Resources You Should Know About

March is Developmental Disabilities Awareness month! Although I blogged  the definition of developmental disabilities here, I wanted to give you more information besides the Federal regulation. Quite often, people are confused between the definition of an intellectual disability and a developmental disability.

A developmental disability is described as an assortment of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments or both. For example, you may have a child or an adult with an intellectual disability or perhaps a person diagnosed with cerebral palsy and an intellectual disability. It is also considered a severe and chronic disability that can occur up to the age of 22, hence the word developmental. A developmental disability can occur before birth such as genetic disorders (i.e. cri du chat, fragile x syndrome,) or chromosomes ( i.e. Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome); during birth (lack of oxygen) or after birth up to the age of 22 (i.e. head injuries, child abuse or accidents).

The disability is likely to occur indefinitely meaning the person will require some type of ongoing service throughout their lives. Finally, the person must show limitations in 3 or more of the following areas of major life activities:

  1. Self-care– brushing teeth, hand-washing and combing hair independently
  2. Receptive and expressive language-ability to understand someone talking and to also be understood
  3. Learning– ability to read and write with understanding
  4. Mobility-ability to move around without any assistance
  5. Self-direction– time management, organization
  6. Capacity for independent living– requiring no supervision
  7. Economic self-sufficiency – having a job  and purchasing what one needs

The following are links to articles on various types of developmental disabilities including resources with facts and statistics, organizations, and sign and symptoms.

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

27 things to know about Fragile X Syndrome

ADHD- facts and statistics

Angelman Syndrome

Angelman syndrome resources

Cri Du Chat Resources

Developmental disability acronyms you should know 

Developmental disability awareness ribbons

Down syndrome-facts and statistics

Down syndrome timeline

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Early Intervention- Resources and Information

Edward Syndrome Resources

Global developmental delays

Intellectual Disability Resources

Over 30 online resources on Rett syndrome

Pervasive DD-NOS

Prader Willi Syndrome Resources

Resources for teaching students with Down syndrome

Ring Chromosome 22 Resources

Teaching self-regulation and autism spectrum disorder

Things to know about Angelman Syndrome

Turner Syndrome Characteristics

What is Prader Willi Syndrome?

William-Beuren Syndrome Resources

Intellectual Disabilities And Epilepsy

According to the Epilepsy Foundation, epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder and affects people of all ages. In fact, 1 in 26 people have seizures and while people who are diagnosed with epilepsy may have no other problems, this is not the case for children and adults with an intellectual and developmental disability where the rates are much higher.

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It is estimated that 30% of children with epilepsy also have another type of disability. Some studies show that children with an intellectual disability and cerebral palsy, had a 35% chance of developing epilepsy, children with an intellectual disability alone had an 8% chance and children with a brain injury occurring after birth stood a 75% chance of developing epilepsy. Statistically, the risky of a child with a developmental disability experiencing an unprovoked seizure by age 5 is 4 times likely than the general population. It is estimated 1.8% of U.S. adults have epilepsy compared to 22% among people with intellectual disabilities.

People with intellectual disabilities tend to also have worse prognosis with adults having a higher rate of death including Sudden Unexplained Death In Epilepsy (SUDEP).

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with recurrent unprovoked seizures. According tot he National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), epilepsys are a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life-threatening to ones that are more benign. The International League Against Epilepsy created a new definition of epilepsy. A person is considered to have epilepsy if they meet any of the following conditions:

  1. At least two provoked (or reflex) seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart.
  2. One Unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years.
  3. Diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome

A seizure is defined as an event and epilepsy is the disease involving recurrent unprovoked seizures.

Intellectual Disability

According to DSM-5, an intellectual disability is a disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual social, and practical domains including deficits in intellectual functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning and learning from experiences.  The severity levels range from mild to profound.

Although there is a high relationship between epilepsy and an intellectual disability, little research has been conducted on safe prescribing practices of an antiepileptic drugs for people with intellectual disabilities. What is known about epilepsy and an intellectual disability is that more severe disabilities are typically caused by damage to the brain

Why is it important to discuss?

Given the large number of people with an intellectual disability and epilepsy, treatment may be more complicated due to multiple impairments including people with a diagnosis of autism, intellectual disability and epilepsy. More research needs to occur which will help to reduce morbidity rates and help to develop accurate guidelines.

Early Death in Those with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Published by: Psychology Today
Written by: Michael A. Ellis

Two recent studies will undoubtedly shock individuals and families affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies show a much earlier age of death in those with ASD as compared with the general population.

One study, published in the American Journal of Public Health in April 2017, finds the life expectancy in the United States of those with ASD to be 36 years old as compared to 72 years old for the general population.  They note that those with ASD are 40 times more likely to die from various injuries.  About 28 percent of those with ASD die of an injury.  Most of these are suffocation, asphyxiation, and drowning.  The risk of drowning peaks at about 5 to 7 years old.  As 50 percent of those with ASD wander, water safety and swim lessons are a must.  GPS trackers are also available for purchase should a child wander or get lost.  This makes finding the child or adult much easier and faster. Click here to read the rest of the story