Spina Bifida- Facts and Statistics

October is Spina Bifida Awareness Month. Spina Bifida is a birth defect that affects the spine and the spinal cord. The membranes surrounding the spinal cord do not close properly.

Facts and Statistics
  • Each year, about 1,500 babies are born with spina bifida.
  • There is no known cause
  • Accumulation of fluid in the brain affects 70% of children.
  • 40% of shunts fail or become in affected and need to be changed within a year.
  • It can happen anywhere along the spine if the neural tube does not close all the way.
  • Spina Bifida might cause physical and intellectual disabilities that range from mild to severe depending on the size and location of the opening in the spine.
  • Myelomeningocele is the most serious type of spina bifida.
  • Spina Bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy or after the baby is born.
  • Some people with Spina Bifida may never experience symptoms
  • Spina Bifida occurs between the 3rd and 4th week of pregnancy.
  • Children with Spina Bifida may have difficulty with math, reading comprehension and learning.
  • Common challenges to learning include, fine and gross motor skills, spatial orientation, communication difficulties and attention and memory.
  • Some children with Spina Bifida also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Hispanic women have the highest rate of having a child affected by spina bifida, when compared with non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Data from 12 state-based birth defects tracking programs from 1997-2007 were used to estimate the total number of pregnancies affected by spina bifida compared to the total number of live births (also called the prevalence of spina bifida) for each racial/ethnic group:
    • Hispanic: 3.80 per 10,000 live births
    • Non-Hispanic black or African-American: 2.73 per 10,000 live births
    • Non-Hispanic white: 3.09 per 10,000 live births
Resources

March of Dimes
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
askus@marchofdimes.com
http://www.marchofdimes.com
Tel: 914-997-4488; 888-MODIMES (663-4637)
Fax: 914-428-8203

Spina Bifida Association
4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW
Suite 250
Washington, DC 20007-4266
sbaa@sbaa.org
http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org
Tel: 202-944-3285; 800-621-3141
Fax: 202-944-3295

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia 

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Dyslexia- Facts and Statistics

Dyslexia is a learning disorder which makes it difficult for children and adults to read and learn new words.
Facts and Statistics
  • It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia
  • Over 40 million American Adults are dyslexic – and only 2 million know it
  • Dyslexia is not tied to IQ – Einstein was dyslexic and had an estimated IQ of 160
  • Dyslexia in not just about getting letters or numbers mixed up or out of order
  • 80% of people associate dyslexia with some form of retardation – this is not true
  • Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability or disorder that includes poor word reading, word decoding, oral reading fluency and spelling
  • Dyslexia occurs in people of all backgrounds and intellectual levels
  • Dyslexia has nothing to do with not working hard enough
  • 20% of school-aged children in the US are dyslexic
  • With appropriate teaching methods, dyslexia can learn successfully
  • Over 50% of NASA employees are dyslexic
  • Dyslexia runs in families; parents with dyslexia are very likely to have children with dyslexia
  • Dyslexics may struggle with organizational skills, planning and prioritizing, keeping time, concentrating with background noise.

Prevalence

About 15-20 percent of the U.S. population has a learning disability.

  • 70-80% of people with poor reading skills, are likely dyslexic.
  • One in five students, or 15-20% of the population, has a language based learning disability. Dyslexia is the most common of the language based learning disabilities.
  • Nearly the same percentage of males and females have dyslexia.
  • Nearly the same percentage of people from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds have dyslexia.
  • Percentages of children at risk for reading failure are much higher in high poverty, language-minority populations who attend ineffective schools.
  • In minority and high poverty schools, 70-80% of children have inadequate reading skills.
  • According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 38% of all fourth grade students are “below basic” reading skills. They are at or below the 40th percentile for their age group.
  • Nationwide 20% of the elementary school population is struggling with reading.
  • National Center for Education statistics, 5% of all adults are “non-literate”.
  • 20-25% of all adults can only read at the lowest level.
  • 62% of non readers dropped out of high school.
  • 80% of children with an IEP have reading difficulty and 85% of those are Dyslexic.
  • 30% of children with Dyslexia also have at least a mild form of AD/HD.

 

Reference

Austin Learning Solutions

Dyslexia Center of Utah

Encyclopedia of Children’s Health 

 

October is Dyslexia Awareness Month

ADHD- Facts and Statistics

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults
Facts and Statistics
  • ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
  • It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
  • It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
  • People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior
  • 70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
  • 50% will continue into adulthood
  • ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
  • ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
  • Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
Prevalence

UNITED STATES

Children & Adolescents

The 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2–17 (Danielson et al. 2018):

  • 6.1 million children (9.4 percent) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This includes:
    • About 388,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.4 percent in this age group)
    • 2.4 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 9.6 percent in this age group)
    • 3.3 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 13.6 percent in this age group)
  • 5.4 million children (8.4 percent) have a current diagnosis of ADHD. This includes:
    • About 335,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.1 percent in this age group)
    • 2.2 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 8.9 percent in this age group)
    • 2.9 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 11.9 percent in this age group)
  • Treatment used by children ages 2-7 with a current diagnosis of ADHD:
    • Two out three were taking medication (62 percent).
    • Less than half received behavioral treatment in the past year (46.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of three received a combination of medication and behavioral treatment in the past year (31.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of four had not received any treatment (23 percent).
  • Severity of ADHD among children ages 2-17:
    • 14.5 percent had severe ADHD
    • 43.7 percent had moderate ADHD
    • 41.8 percent had mild ADHD
  • Co-occuring conditions (children ages 2-17):
    • Two out of three children (63.8 percent) had at least one co-occuring condition.
    • Half of all children (51.5 percent) had behavioral or conduct problems.
    • One out of three children (32.7 percent) had anxiety problems.
    • One out of six children (16.8 percent) had depression.
    • About one out of seven children (13.7 percent) had autism spectrum disorder.
    • About one out of 80 children (1.2 percent) had Tourette syndrome.
    • One in a hundred adolescents (1 percent) had a substance abuse disorder.
  • By race or ethnicity (children ages 2-17):
    • 8.4 percent White
    • 10.7 percent Black
    • 6.6 percent Other
    • 6.0 percent Hispanic/Latino
    • 9.1 percent Non-Hispanic/Latino

Adults with ADHD

  • 4.4 percent of the adult US population has ADHD, but less than 20 percent of these individuals seek help for it.
  • 41.3% of adult ADHD cases are considered severe.
  • During their lifetimes, 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women.
  • About 30 to 60 percent of patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to be affected into adulthood.
  • Adults with ADHD are 5 times more likely to speed
  • Adults with ADHD are nearly 50 percent more likely to be in a serious car crash.
  • Having ADHD makes you 3 times more likely to be dead by the age of 45
  • Anxiety disorders occur in 50 percent of adults with ADHD.
Reference

Additude Magazine

CHADD- National Resource Center on ADHD

 

 

Down Syndrome- Facts and Statistics

Facts and Statistics

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that develops when there is an abnormal cell division resulting in an extra copy of chromosome 21.

Facts
  • There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) accounts for 95% of cases, translocation accounts for about 4%, and mosaicism accounts for about 1%
  • Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition. Approximately one in every 700 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome – about 6,000 each year
  • Down syndrome occurs in people of all races and economic levels
  • The incidence of births of children with Down syndrome increases with the age of the mother. But due to higher fertility rates in younger women, 80% of children with Down syndrome are born to women under 35 years of age
  • People with Down syndrome have an increased risk for certain medical conditions such as congenital heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems, Alzheimer’s disease, childhood leukemia and thyroid conditions. Many of these conditions are now treatable, so most people with Down syndrome lead healthy lives
  • A few of the common physical traits of Down syndrome are: low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm. Every person with Down syndrome is a unique individual and may possess these characteristics to different degrees or not at all
  • Life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased dramatically in recent decades – from 25 in 1983 to 60 today
  • People with Down syndrome attend school, work, participate in decisions that affect them, have meaningful relationships, vote and contribute to society in many wonderful ways
  • All people with Down syndrome experience cognitive delays, but the effect is usually mild to moderate and is not indicative of the many strengths and talents that each individual possesses
Prevalence
  • The incidence of Down syndrome is between I in 1000 to 1 in 1,100 live birth worldwide.
  • Each year, approximately 3,000 to 5,000 children are born with Down syndrome.
  • 60-80% of children with Down syndrome having hearing issues
  • 40-45% of children with Down syndrome have congenital heart disease
Life Expectancy
  • The life expectancy increased slowly from 1900 to 1960 (by 89%) but rapidly grew from 1960 to 2007 (456%)
Life Expectancy by Race
  • Whites with Down syndrome in the United States had a median death at the age of 50 in 1997 compared to 25 years for African Americans and 11 for people of other races

 

Reference

National Down Syndrome Society

World Health Organization

 

October is Down Syndrome Awareness Month

Cerebral Palsy Organizations You Should Know About

Cerebral Palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication and behavior, epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood caused by damage to the developing brain that affects a person’s ability to control his or her muscles. CDC estimates that about 1 in 323 children are diagnosed with cerebral palsy annual.

The following organizations provide resources on their websites including fact sheets, resources and information:

Cerebral Palsy Foundation

Funds cerebral palsy research in the United States, (CPF) promotes the delivery of current research, best practices and technology to people with cerebral palsy and their support system. The mission includes transforming lives through research, innovation and collaboration.

Children’s Hemiplegia and Stroke Association

Helps children who have survived an early brain injury that results in hemiplegia (weakness on one side of the body).

Make LemonAide Foundation

The Make Lemon Aide Foundation is a non-profit organization designed to improve the lives of people with cerebral palsy by raising awareness, funding research and training therapist.

Reaching For The Stars

Founded in 2005, RFTS is the largest pediatric cerebral palsy non-profit foundation in the world led by parents with a focus on the prevention, treatment and cure of cerebral palsy

United Cerebral Palsy

UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ensure a life without limits for people with a spectrum of disabilities. UCP provides services and support to more than 176,000 children and adults through its 68 affiliates around the country.

CP Daily Living

An educational resource website and Facebook page designed to give families and caregivers a central place for practical information and resources.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance

A non-profit organization based in Australia. Provides services to help children and adults living with neurological and physical disabilities.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NIDS mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disorder. The website provides patient and caregiver education on cerebral palsy including an informational page.

What is Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?

OCD is a neurobiological condition. It is estimated that 1% to 3% of children and adolescents are affected by obsession- compulsive disorder (OCD).The DSM-IV defines OCD as persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as inappropriate and the cause of anxiety and distress. These thoughts cause obsession as a way to ease their anxiety. Your child may perform repetitive actions such as chewing food a certain number of times, refusing to eat certain foods, separation anxiety or a need for order and perfection

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Infographic

 

 

 

Epilepsy Facts

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system often caused by abnormal electrical discharges that develop into seizures. The following are additional facts on epilepsy and seizures:

30-epilepsy-facts

  • More people live with epilepsy than autism, spectrum disorders, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy combined.
  • You can’t swallow your tongue during a seizure. It is physically impossible.
  • You should never force something into the mouth of someone having a seizure.
  • Don’t restrain someone having a seizure.
  • Epilepsy is not contagious .
  • Anyone can develop epilepsy.
  • Epilepsy is not rare.
  • 1 in 26 Americans will develop epilepsy in their lifetime.4An estimated 3 million Americans and 65 million people worldwide live with epilepsy.
  • In 2/3 of patients diagnosed with epilepsy, the cause is unknown.
  • Up to 50,000 deaths occur annually in the U.S. from status epilepticus (prolonged seizures). (SUDEP) and other seizure-related causes such as drowning and other accidents.
  • SUDEP accounts for 34% of all sudden deaths in children.
  • Epilepsy costs the U.S. approximately 15.5 billion each year.
  • A seizure is a transient disruption of brain function due to abnormal and excessive electrical discharges in brain cells.
  • Epilepsy is a disease of the brain that predisposes a person to excessive electrical discharges in the brain cell.
  • It is diagnosed when 2 or more unprovoked seizures have occurred.
  • It must be at least 2 unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart.
  • About 14% have simple partial seizures.
  • 36% have complex partial seizures.
  • 5% have tonic-clonic seizures.
  • Seizures can be caused by head trauma, stokes, brain tumor and a brain infection.
  • Causes are unknown in 60 to 70% of cases.
  • The prevalence is 1% of the U.S. population.
  • Approximately 2.2 to 3 million in the U.S. have seizures.
  • It affects all ages, socioeconomic and racial groups.
  • Incidents are higher in children and older adults.
  • Seizures can range from momentarily blanks to loss of awareness
  • Almost 150,000 people in the U.S. develop epilepsy every year.
  • No gender is likely to develop than others.
  • 1/3 of individuals with autism spectrum disorders also have epilepsy.
  • The prevalence of epilepsy in people with an intellectual disability is higher than the general population.

20 Facts You Should Know About Down Syndrome

In keeping with celebrating Down Syndrome Awareness month, here are some additional facts on Down syndrome:

down-syndrome-facts

  • Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21. This alters the course of development and causes characteristics associated with Down syndrome.
  • There are 3 types of Down syndrome

downsyndrometypes

  • It is the most commonly occurring chromosome condition
  • 1 in 691 babies are born in the United States
  • The incidences increases with the age of the mother due to high fertility rates in younger women.
  • An increased for certain medical conditions such as, congenital heart defects, respiratory, Alzheimer disease and childhood Leukemia.
  • Common traits include low muscle tone, small stature, upward slant in the eyes and a single deep crease across the center of the palm.
  • Translocation is the only type that is inherited
  • Is named after British Doctor John Langdon Downs the first to categorize the common features
  • Dr. Jerome Lejeune discovered Down syndrome is a genetic disorder
  • A person has 3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of 2
  • Is the leading cause of intellectual and developmental disabilities in the United States and the World.
  • 38% of Americans know someone with Down syndrome
  • The average lifespan is 60. In 1983, it was 25.
  • 39.4 % are in the mild intellectual disability range of 50-70.
  • 1% are on the border
  • A growing number live independently
  • Occurs in all races and economic levels.
  • Some high school graduates with Down syndrome participate in post-secondary education.
  • In the United States, Down syndrome is the least funded major genetic condition

 

40 Facts You Should Know About ADHD

October is ADHD Awareness Month. An opportunity to have a greater understanding and awareness of ADHD. How much do you really know about ADHD? some of the fact below may surprise you.

adhdfacts

  • ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
  • It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
  • It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
  • People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior

    adhdtable

  • People with ADHD may day-dream often
  • 70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
  • 50% will continue into adulthood
  • ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
  • ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
  • Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
  • Affects people of every age, gender, IQ, religious and socio-economic background
  • In 2011, CDC reported 9.5% of children are diagnosed with ADHD
  • Boys are diagnosed 2-3 times as often as girls
  • Up to 30% of children and 25-40% of adults with ADHD have co-existing anxiety disorders.
  • Can be difficult to diagnosed
  • Children with untreated ADHD are often mislabeled as problem children
  • The average age of diagnosis is 7
  • Symptoms typically first appear between the age of 3 and 6
  • About 4% of American adults over the age of 18 deal with ADHD on a daily basis
  • 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed
  • 4.9 percent of women will be diagnosed
  • Children living below twice the poverty level have increased risk
  • The lowest states with ADHD rates are Nevada, New Jersey, Colorado, Utah and California
  • The highest states with ADHD rates are Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiana, Delaware and South Carolina
  • An estimated 6.4. million American children have been diagnosed
  • ADHD is often overlooked in girls
  • The average cost of treating ADHD per person is $14,576
  • The yearly cost to Americans is 42.5 billion
  • U.K. children are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than U.S. children
  • Boys and girls display very different symptoms

adhddiff2

  • It was first mentioned in 1902. British Pediatrician Sir George Still described “an abnormal defect of moral control in children.”
  • He found that some affected children could not control their behavior the way typical children would.
  • Was originally called hyperkinetic impulse disorder
  • In 1798, Sir Alexander Crichton used to term, “mental restlessness.” to describe ADHD
  • During the 1940’s, the disorder was blamed on brain damage
  • In 1955, the FDA approved the drug Ritalin
  • In 1980, the American Psychological Association changed the name to ADD
  • In 1989, the name was changed again to ADHD
  • Sleep disorders affect people with ADHD
  • ADHD contributes to more driving citations and accidents

Autism Facts and Statistics

April is Autism Awareness Month

autismlogo

1 percent of the world population is diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder

Prevalence in the United States is estimated at 1 in 68 births

1 in 42 boys are diagnosed with autism

1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism

100 individuals are diagnosed everyday

More than 3.3 million Americans live with autism spectrum disorder

Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability

Autism services cost the United States citizens 236-262 billion annually

Autism costs a family $60,000 a year on an average

Boys are nearly five times more likely than girls to have autism

Autism generally appears before the age of 3

40% of children with autism do not speak

25-30% of children with autism have some words at 12 to 18 months, and then lose them.

Almost half (44%) of children with autism have average to above average intellectual ability.

Autism is reported to occur in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.

The UK estimate is 1 in 100 are diagnosed with autism

30-50% of individuals with autism also have seizures.

Autism Spectrum Disorders refers to a group of complex neurodevelopment disorders which includes repetitive patterns of behavior and difficulties with social communication, interaction, sensory processing and motor issues.

Eugene Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist first termed autism to adult schizophrenia.

In 1943, Leo Kanner dissociated autism from schizophrenia.

Autism is more common than childhood cancer, diabetes and AIDS combined.

Accidental drowning accounted for 91% total U.s. deaths reported in children with autism due to wandering.