Feeding problems are common in people with an intellectual/developmental disability. For example, it is reported that 37% of individuals with diplegia or hemiplegia and 86% of individuals with quadriplegia experience GERD. It is very common in people with cerebral palsy and can show up as anemia, failure to thrive and reoccurring infections.
It is usually missed by people who have been feeding and serving food to individuals with disability due to its subtle signs.
What is Gastroesophageal Reflux? (GERD)
GERD occurs when the muscle connecting to the esophagus is weak and opens under pressure, allowing the stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus. It is the acid from the stomach to the esophagus. this will irritate the lining of the esophagus and causes heartburn. Without treatment, GERD can cause complications.
What causes GERD?
GERD is usually caused by inflammation from the exposure of the esophagus to the stomach acid. The following can cause GERD:
- diet such as fatty foods, coffee, peppermint and chocolate
- decreased muscle tone
- backup in blockage of the intestinal tract.
There are many reasons for the high incidence of GERD in individuals with intellectual disability including immobility and positioning, abnormal postures, medication use and excessive drooling.
What is a developmental disability?
A developmental disability is described as an assortment of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments or both. For example, you may have a child or an adult with an intellectual disability or perhaps a person diagnosed with cerebral palsy and an intellectual disability. It is also considered a severe and chronic disability that can occur up to the age of 22, hence the word developmental. A developmental disability can occur before birth such as genetic disorders (i.e. cri du chat, fragile x syndrome,) or chromosomes ( i.e. Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome); during birth (lack of oxygen) or after birth up to the age of 22 (i.e. head injuries, child abuse or accidents).
For people with limited communication, the following are possible signs of gastroesophageal reflux:
If you suspect GERD, make arrangements for the person to be evaluated by a physician.