Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Page

Definition:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  is a neurological disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that disrupts functioning in both children and adults

The DSM-V defines ADHD as a persistent pattern of attention and or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning of development. Inattention symptoms include the following:

  1. often fails to give close attention to details
  2. often has difficulty sustaining attention in task or play activities
  3. often does not listen when spoken to directly
  4. Often does not follow through on instructions
  5. Often has difficulty organizing task and activities often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in task that requires sustained mental effort.

Hyperactive symptoms include:

  1. trouble paying attention
  2. restlessness
  3. excessive talking
  4. loud interaction with others
  5. frequent interventions
  6. may have a quick temper

Awareness Day: None

Awareness Month: October

Ribbon: Orange

Prevalence:

  • ADHD is a condition characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity
  • It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood
  • It is usually diagnosed in childhood and last into adulthood
  • People diagnosed with ADHD may have difficulty paying attention and or controlling impulsive behavior
  • 70% of people with ADHD in childhood will continue to have it in adolescence
  • 50% will continue into adulthood
  • ADHD is not caused by watching too much, parenting or having too much sugar
  • ADHD may be caused by genetics, brain injury or low birth weights
  • Is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the brain regulation in executive functioning skills
Prevalence

UNITED STATES

Children & Adolescents

The 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2–17 (Danielson et al. 2018):

  • 6.1 million children (9.4 percent) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. This includes:
    • About 388,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.4 percent in this age group)
    • 2.4 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 9.6 percent in this age group)
    • 3.3 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 13.6 percent in this age group)
  • 5.4 million children (8.4 percent) have a current diagnosis of ADHD. This includes:
    • About 335,000 young children ages 2-5 (or 2.1 percent in this age group)
    • 2.2 million school-age children ages 6-11 (or 8.9 percent in this age group)
    • 2.9 million adolescents ages 12-17 (or 11.9 percent in this age group)
  • Treatment used by children ages 2-7 with a current diagnosis of ADHD:
    • Two out three were taking medication (62 percent).
    • Less than half received behavioral treatment in the past year (46.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of three received a combination of medication and behavioral treatment in the past year (31.7 percent).
    • Nearly one out of four had not received any treatment (23 percent).
  • Severity of ADHD among children ages 2-17:
    • 14.5 percent had severe ADHD
    • 43.7 percent had moderate ADHD
    • 41.8 percent had mild ADHD
  • Co-occuring conditions (children ages 2-17):
    • Two out of three children (63.8 percent) had at least one co-occuring condition.
    • Half of all children (51.5 percent) had behavioral or conduct problems.
    • One out of three children (32.7 percent) had anxiety problems.
    • One out of six children (16.8 percent) had depression.
    • About one out of seven children (13.7 percent) had autism spectrum disorder.
    • About one out of 80 children (1.2 percent) had Tourette syndrome.
    • One in a hundred adolescents (1 percent) had a substance abuse disorder.
  • By race or ethnicity (children ages 2-17):
    • 8.4 percent White
    • 10.7 percent Black
    • 6.6 percent Other
    • 6.0 percent Hispanic/Latino
    • 9.1 percent Non-Hispanic/Latino

Adults with ADHD

  • 4.4 percent of the adult US population has ADHD, but less than 20 percent of these individuals seek help for it.
  • 41.3% of adult ADHD cases are considered severe.
  • During their lifetimes, 12.9 percent of men will be diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 4.9 percent of women.
  • About 30 to 60 percent of patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood continue to be affected into adulthood.
  • Adults with ADHD are 5 times more likely to speed
  • Adults with ADHD are nearly 50 percent more likely to be in a serious car crash.
  • Having ADHD makes you 3 times more likely to be dead by the age of 45
  • Anxiety disorders occur in 50 percent of adults with ADHD.

Teaching Resources

The following links provide tools, resources and information for parents and special education educators on providing support to children diagnosed with ADHD.

Accommodations

Information on classroom accommodations including teaching techniques, learning style, schedule, environment, material, assistance and behavior management.

8 easy classroom accommodations for students with ADHD( Blue Mango)

10 ways to support students with hyperactivity and attention needs  (The Starr Spangled Planner)

Accommodations for ADHD students (ADDCoach4U)

Classroom accommodations for ADHD(Understood)

Every 504 plan should include these ADHD accommodations (ADDitude)

Top 20 ADHD accommodations and modifications that work (Promoting Success Blog)

Classroom Tips and Strategies

The following links are tips and strategies that are specific to teaching techniques and helpful information on behavior approaches, rewards, eliminating distractions and seating arrangements

15 strategies to help students with ADHD (Student Savvy)

30 ideas for teaching children with ADHD (Kelly Bear)

50 practical strategies for teaching ADHD without drugs (ASCD Edge)

ADHD and piano lesson teaching strategies (Teach Piano Today)

ADD/ADHD in the classroom: Tips for teachers and parents (hsana.org)

ADHD Teaching Strategies for the Classroom( Promoting Success Blog)

Classroom interventions for ADHD (pdf)

Classroom rules that keep student’s attention on learning (Additude)

Helping the student with ADHD in the classroom (LDonline)

How can teachers help students with ADHD (Education World)

Ideas and strategies for kids with ADD and learning disabilities (Child Development Institute)

Setting up the classroom (ADD in Schools)

Supporting students with ADHD (Free Spirit Publishing)

Teaching students with ADHD: Instructional strategies and practice (U.S. Department of Education)

Tips for teaching students with ADHD(ADHD Kids Rock)

Concentration

Tips and information from websites on helping students concentrate in the classroom.

5 simple concentration building techniques for kids with ADHD (Empowering Parents)

5 ways to improve your child’s focus (Understood)

17 ways to help students with ADHD concentrate (Edutopia)

Ways to improve concentration in kids with ADHD (Brain Balance)

Executive Functioning

Executive functioning helps students analyze a task, planning, organization, time management and finishing a task. The following links provide articles on understand executive functioning and its relationship to ADHD.

Classroom strategies for executive functioning (Understood)

Executive functioning explained and 20 strategies for success (Minds in Bloom)

Executive function skills (CHADD)

Executive Functioning Issues (Understood)

Handwriting for kids with ADHD (Look! We’re Learning)

Articles:

47 hacks people with ADHD use to stay on track

10 things ADHD is- and 3 it isn’t.

Setting students with ADHD and Autism up for success

Children with ADHD and Autism are more likely to develop anxiety

Decoding the overlap between Autism and ADHD

ADHD coping strategies you haven’t tried

ADHD and math teaching resources

Great websites for women and girls with ADHD

Strategies in training employees with ADHD

Cerebral Palsy Resource Page

Definition: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. It is the most common motor disability in childhood. It is estimated that an average of 1 in 345 children in the U.S. have cerebral palsy

Awareness Ribbon Green Ribbon

Awareness Month- March

Awareness Day-   October 6. World Cerebral Palsy Day

Prevalence

  • Around 764,000 people in the United states have at least one symptom of cerebral palsy
  • Around 10,000 babies are born each year with cerebral palsy
  • Boys are diagnosed more often than girls
  • Cerebral palsy is the mot commonly diagnosed childhood motor disability in the United States
  • Over 77% of children with cerebral palsy have the spastic form
  • More than 50% of all children with cerebral palsy can walk independently
  • African American children with cerebral palsy are 1.7 times more likely to need assistance with walking or be unable to walk at all
  • Around 41% of babies and children with cerebral palsy will have limited abilities in crawling, walking and running.
  • Around 41% children with cerebral palsy in the United states have some form of a cognitive disorder
  • Behavior problems are common in children with cerebral palsy including social skills and anger issues.
  • Seizures are a common associate disorder of cerebral palsy and can range from mild to extreme severe.
  • There is no known cure
Australia Facts and Statistics
  • 1 in 700 Australian babies is diagnosed each year
  • 1 in 2 is in chronic pain
  • 1 in 2 has an intellectual disability
  • 1 in 3 cannot walk
  • 1 in 4 also has epilepsy
  • 1 in 3 has hip displacement
  • 1 in 4 cannot talk
  • 1 in 4 has a behavior disorder
  • 1 in 5 is tube fed
  • 1 in 5 has a sleep disorder
  • 1 in 10 has a severe vision impairment
  • 1 in 25 has a severe hearing impairment
United Kingdom- Facts and Statistics
  • The current United Kingdom incidence rate is around 1 in 400 births
  • Approximately 1800 children are diagnosed with cerebral palsy each year
  • There are an estimated 30,000 children with cerebral palsy in the United Kingdom
  • For every 100 girls with cerebral palsy, there are 135 boys with cerebral palsy
  • just under half of children with cerebral palsy were born prematurely
  • One in three children with cerebral palsy is unable to walk
  • One in four children with cerebral palsy cannot feed or dress themselves
  • one in four children with cerebral palsy has a learning disability
  • one in fifty children with cerebral palsy has a hearing impairment

Facts

Is a group of neurological disorders that affects body movement and muscle coordination.

Is caused by damage to the brain which controls movement and balance

Affects the motor area of the brain that directs muscle movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy differ in type and severity in each person.

Is the leading cause of childhood disabilities.

Cerebral Palsy is not progressive meaning it does not get worse overtime.

Cerebral Palsy prevalence is 3.3 children per 1000.

There is no cure for cerebral palsy

Cerebral Palsy is not contagious

Risk factors for cerebral palsy include pre-mature birth, infections during pregnancy, exposure to toxic substances and mothers with excess protein in the urine or a history of having seizures.

Cerebral Palsy can also be caused by complicated labor and delivery due to disruption of blood and oxygen to the brain(hypoxia) and babies in a breech position (feet first).Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type affecting 80% of people with cerebral palsy.

Ataxic cerebral palsy affects balance and depth perception

There are more boys born with cerebral palsy than girls.

Stroke in a baby or child less than the age of 3 results in cerebral palsy.

One in nine with cerebral palsy have features of autism

One in three children with cerebral palsy cannot walk

One in four children with cerebral palsy cannot feed themselves

There are 17 million people with cerebral palsy worldwide.

58.2% of children with cerebral palsy can walk independently, 11.3 walk using a hand-held mobility device and 30.6% have limited or no walking ability

Speech and language disorders are common in people with cerebral palsy

Pain is common among children with cerebral palsy

Harry Jennings, an engineer built the first modern folding wheelchair

Sir William Osler wrote the first book on cerebral palsy

Dr. Sigmund Freud was the first to state that cerebral palsy might be caused by abnormal development before birth.

Cerebral palsy doesn’t necessary mean learning difficulties.

Cerebral Palsy History Timeline

1810- Dr. William John Little is credited with first identifying spastic diplegia is born.

1836- Louis Stromeyer corrects John Little’s club foot. This discovery begins a career in understanding and treating childhood impairments.

1843- Dr. William John Little begins lecturing on spastic ridgity.

1853. Dr. William John Little publishes On the Nature and Treatment of the Deformities of the Human Frame.

1861- Dr. William John Little establishes the classic definition of spastic cerebral palsy.

1889- William Osler, one of the founding professors of John Hopkins Hospital, wrote the book, Cerebral Palsies of Children

1937- Herbert A. Everest and Harry Jennings Sr., built a lightweight collapsible wheelchair.

1937- The Children’s Rehabilitation Insitute is founded by Dr. Winthrope Phelps specializing in children with cerebral palsy.

1897- Dr. Freud states cerebral palsy may be caused by fetal development

1946- Cerebral Palsy of New York State founded by parents of children with cerebral palsy.

1948- United Cerebral Palsy is incorporated.

1949- United Cerebral Palsy founded by Leonard Goldenson, his wife Isabel, Nina Eaton and Jack and Ethel Hausman.

2002-  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts first U.S. multi-state study on the prevalence.

Secondary Issues

  • Epilepsy
  • ADHD
  • Hydrocephaly
  • Executive Function
  • Learning Disability
  • Speech Impairment

Classifications

Hemiplegia- The inability to move the arm and leg on one side of the body.

Diplegia-The inability to move either both arms or both legs.

Quadriplegia- A type of cerebral palsy that affects all limbs on both sides of the body

Monoplegia- A type of cerebral palsy that affects only one limb.

Types of Cerebral Palsy

Athetoid- A type of cerebral palsy in which affected muscles move involuntarily.

Ataxic- A type of cerebral palsy affecting balance and coordination.

Spastic– A type of cerebral palsy causing stiff and severely cramped muscles.

Co-existing Disorders

Assistive Devices

Organizations

The following organizations provide resources on their websites including fact sheets, resources and information:

Cerebral Palsy Foundation

Funds cerebral palsy research in the United States, (CPF) promotes the delivery of current research, best practices and technology to people with cerebral palsy and their support system. The mission includes transforming lives through research, innovation and collaboration.

Children’s Hemiplegia and Stroke Association

Helps children who have survived an early brain injury that results in hemiplegia (weakness on one side of the body).

Make LemonAide Foundation

The Make Lemon Aide Foundation is a non-profit organization designed to improve the lives of people with cerebral palsy by raising awareness, funding research and training therapist.

Reaching For The Stars

Founded in 2005, RFTS is the largest pediatric cerebral palsy non-profit foundation in the world led by parents with a focus on the prevention, treatment and cure of cerebral palsy

United Cerebral Palsy

UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ensure a life without limits for people with a spectrum of disabilities. UCP provides services and support to more than 176,000 children and adults through its 68 affiliates around the country.

CP Daily Living

An educational resource website and Facebook page designed to give families and caregivers a central place for practical information and resources.

Cerebral Palsy Alliance

A non-profit organization based in Australia. Provides services to help children and adults living with neurological and physical disabilities.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NIDS mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disorder. The website provides patient and caregiver education on cerebral palsy including an informational page.

Articles

Aging

5 common challenges for adults with cerebral palsy- Made For Movement Blog

Adults and cerebral palsy– Cerebral Palsy Organization

Adults with Cerebral Palsy- Cerebral Palsy Foundation

Aging with Cerebral Palsy and Chronic Pain– The Mighty

Care of adults with cerebral palsy-American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine

Cerebral Palsy and aging– Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

Cerebral palsy and transitioning to adulthood-Cerebral Palsy Alliance

Cerebral Palsy effects through lifespan-Physiopedia

Cerebral Palsy in Adulthood– Everyday Health

Cerebral Palsy patients provide rare insight into aging– Cerebral Palsy News Today

Cerebral palsy symptoms in Adulthood- Healthfully

Living as an adult with cerebral palsy– Healthline

Living with cerebral palsy as an adult– WebMD

Progression and Correction of Deformities in Adult with Cerebral Palsy-ACNR

The good, the bad, and the ugly facts about adult cerebral palsy-Karen Pape

Co-occurring Disorders

Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy– Cerebral Palsy Guidance

Cerebral Palsy and Seizures– Cerebral Palsy Guidance

Cerebral Palsy and Speech Therapy– Cerebral Palsy Group

Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience lower leg fatigue when walking study shows- Cerebral Palsy News Today

Common health problems associated with cerebral palsy- My Child Without Limits

Communication and swallowing issues for adults with cerebral palsy-EPI

Difficulties in swallowing and coughing in spastic cerebral palsy focus of study– Cerebral Palsy News Today

Digestive health tips for kids with cerebral palsy-Sarah Halstead

Gastrointestinal and nutritional issues in cerebral palsy-practicalgastro.ocom

How does cerebral palsy affect people?-Cerebral Palsy Alliance

Prevalence of cerebral palsy and intellectual disability among children- NCBI

Sleep disorders in kids with cerebral palsy often remain untreated study suggest– Cerebral Palsy News today

Sleep issues among children with cerebral palsy-CP-NET

Seizures in children with cerebral palsy and white matter injuries-Pediatrics

Understanding more about cerebral palsy and seizures– Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

 

Early Intervention Training Resources

The following training resources are from the Center for Parent Information and Resources:

Key terms to know in early intervention– Parent Center Hub. 6-page pdf document

Identification of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities– reviews the process by which schools identify that a child has a specific learning disability

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)– the module includes 1 sideshow presentation, trainer’s guide, speakers notes and 2 handouts

Introduction to Procedural Safeguards- Part C of IDEA designed to protect the rights of parents and their infant or toddler.

The basics of early intervention– Includes a 64-page trainer’s guide in PDF or Word format

Screening, evaluation and assessment procedures– Module 4

Material and Resources from the CDC:

Autism Case Training– Web-based continuing education introductory course on autism.

Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome-PDF format including resources on the topic

Specific Special Needs Topics:

Getting to know cerebral palsy- training resource in pdf format for facilitators

Supporting the student with Down syndrome in your classroom– created by Down Syndrome Association of West Michigan.

Neurodiversity in the workplace

Published by: JD SUPRA
Written by: Dentons

It is estimated that 15% of the UK population are neurodiverse. Many workplaces will already be accommodating neurodiverse employees but without the proper awareness and understanding of how best to support these employees

With Learning Disability Week taking place this month we have taken the opportunity to explore neurodiversity in the workplace and what employers should be doing. As a starting point, it is worth noting that ACAS has produced some very helpful guidance for employers, managers and employees.

What is neurodiversity?

Put concisely, people think differently. Neurodiversity is the way the brain processes and interprets information. One in seven people are neurodivergent, meaning that their brain processes information differently to most. Neurodivergence is experienced along a spectrum and has a range of characteristics which vary depending on the individual. There are various forms of neurodivergence but the most common are autism, dyslexia, dyspraxia and ADHD. While there tend to be certain expectations about the effects of each of these, they all cover a wide range of differences. Click here to read the rest of the story.

Zappos Customizing Shoe Buying To Help Those With Disabilities

Published by: Disability Scoop
Written by: Shaun Heasley

Zappos is looking to make it easier for people with special needs to buy shoes.

The online retailer is testing a firstof-its-kind program starting this week that allows customers to buy just one shoe or purchase a pair of shoes that includes two different sizes.

Known as the Single and Different Size Shoes Test Program, the offering is part of Zappos Adaptive, an effort launched in 2017 to provide a collection of clothing and footwear to meet the needs of those with various disabilities. Click here to read the rest of the story

 

Law Enforcement and Autism: Why Training is Needed

Published by: Psychology Today
Written by: Katherine Stavropoulos

Although law enforcement is tasked with keeping the public safe, interactions between first responders and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other psychiatric conditions can be contentious—and in some cases, deadly.

A 2012 study conducted by researchers at Drexel University measured how common it was for youth with ASD to be stopped and questioned by police or arrested. They found that by age 21, 20 percent of youth with ASD had been stopped by police, and almost 5 percent had been arrested.

Although the Drexel study focused on those in the U.S., similar findings have been reported from other countries. For example, a study from Swedish researchers found that people on the autism spectrum were at a 31 percent higher risk of having a criminal conviction compared to those without ASD. More broadly, in a study of all civilian deaths during interactions with law enforcement in 2015, researchers found that individuals with a mental illness were over 7 times more likely to be killed by law enforcement compared to those without. Click here to read the rest of the story

Developmental Disability Data/Survey Resources

ADHD

ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity

ADHD throughout the years (CDC) 

National Prevalence of ADHD and Treatment

National survey of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome -Survey about children aged 2 to 15 years old in 2011-2012.

What types of treatment do children with ADHD receive?

Autism

Autism Data Visualization Tool– prevalence estimates and demographic characteristics at the national, state and community levels (CDC)

CDC releases first estimates of the number of adults living with autism spectrum disorder in the United States

New ASD prevalence numbers show gaps are closing, but more work is needed

National Database for Autism Research– HealthData.Gov

Prevalence of self-injurious behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders

Cerebral Palsy

Birth prevalence of cerebral palsy

Prevalence of cerebral palsy, co-occurring autism spectrum disorders, and motor functioning

Developmental Disabilities

Increase in developmental disabilities among children in the United States

Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disabilities, and vision impairment, Metropolitan Atlanta, 1991-2010

Mental Health

U.S. children with diagnosed anxiety and depression

Disability Awareness Resources

Lesson Plans

6 autism awareness activities for kids– suggested activities from the Family Education Website.

Disability Awareness: created by Learning to Give, provides service-learning project ideas related to disability awareness.

Disability Awareness Activities– a lesson plan through study.com. This site shows a sample of the lesson plan. In order to unlock the full course, you will be required to become a member by creating an account.

Disability Awareness Activities for Students of all Ages– a two-page handout developed by the PACER Center with a list of suggested activities teachers can use in the classroom

Disability Awareness: 10 things parents should teach their kids about disabilities- written by HuffPost. The article provides useful teaching information on motor disabilities.

Disability Awareness Class Activity Lesson Plans– provides various lesson plans and teaching activities on Autism, Communication Disorders, Learning Disabilities, Physical Disabilities, and General Disabilities

Disability Awareness Activity Packet– created by DVUSD Special Education, a printable download that provides activities and resources for teaching students about disabilities including role-playing activities.

Hosting a Disability Awareness Day– from Blogger, My Special Learners

Themed and Disability Education activities for children and adults created by the Indiana Governor’s Council for people with Disabilities. Provides discussion guides, speaker ideas and activities.

Tips for Disability Awareness– website provides information on the use of appropriate disability terms and ways to interact with a person with a disability.

Understanding Disabilities– a lesson plan from the Special Olympics organization. The lesson plan focuses on understanding perceptions of disabilities and how they affect people’s attitudes and beliefs.

Understanding Disabilities- from the Teaching Tolerance Organization, provides a lesson plan on helping students increase knowledge about people with disabilities and explore ways to communicate with people with disabilities.

Disability History

Disability History and Awareness: A Resource Guide

Disability Rights History

Timeline

The Disability Rights Movement

Sensitivity Training

Disability Awareness and Sensitivity Training– Richmond Centre for Disability

Disability Sensitivity Guide– National Disability Institute

The grief in knowing you’ll one day outlive your primary caregiver as a person with a physical disability

Published by: CBC News
Written by: Sam Juric

“They’re like a charley horse,” says Rebecca Wilchynski, explaining the involuntary spasms that take hold of her legs — breathtaking and sudden.

“It’s not just in one muscle, it can be in all the muscles or a few,” she said. “Cerebral palsy, every case is individualized, and there are definitely more severe cases and some that are less severe. I have the less severe.”

Cerebral palsy is a neurological condition affecting body movement and muscle co-ordination, resulting from an injury to the brain. It does not get worse over time, though the exact symptoms can change over a person’s lifetime.

As a result of an injury to the brain, cerebral palsy interferes with messages from the brain to the body, and from the body to the brain.

“It’s very painful. I have spastic … and athetoid [cerebral palsy], which means they move without me wanting them to, so it can make life a little bit interesting.”  Click here to read the rest of the story